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What happens to the red blood cell in CaCl₂ solution?

What happens to the red blood cell in CaCl₂ solution?


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Here's the problem:

One red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution of NaCl, another is placed in a solution of CaCl2 equimolar with the NaCl solution. What would you expect to happen and why?

My reasoning is that the red blood cell will shrink due to water loss by osmosis when placed in hypertonic NaCl. It will shrink even further due to the larger osmosis gradient due to there being such low concentration of Ca2+ normally in the cell. However, I'm not sure if this is right so could someone please explain the correct answer?


The reason why the cell would shrink more in CaCl2 solution is because it has a higher van't Hoff factor i.e. total number of dissociated ionic species per solute molecule (it is 2 for NaCl whereas it is 3 for CaCl2).

(Nonionic solutes do not dissociate and will therefore have a van't Hoff factor of 1)

Osmotic pressure (and other colligative properties) are proportional to van't Hoff factor. Therefore osmotic pressure in CaCl2 solution will be 3/2 times of that in an equimolar NaCl solution.

Note that the ionic chemical potential is not what drives osmosis; it is the differential concentration of water (or any other solvent) that drives it.


What Happens to Red Blood Cells in an Isotonic Solution?

Red blood cells maintain normal morphology and chemical exchange rates in isotonic solutions. A cell is in an isotonic solution if the osmotic pressure inside the cell is equivalent to the osmotic pressure of the solution surrounding the cell. Plasma is the primary isotonic solution for red blood cells.

The morphology of the cell, specifically the surface area-to-volume ratio, is a critical factor for diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the cell membrane. The disc shape of a red blood cell in plasma is unique because it has a large surface area-to-volume ratio while maintaining a high level of agility the cells remain small and retain the ability to travel appropriate speeds within veins of small diameter.

Hypotonic solutions have lower osmotic pressure than red blood cells, causing the cells to take in additional water. Subsequently, the cells bulge. This does not impact the surface area-to-volume ratio, but it does impact the turbidity of the cells within the veins. If the red blood cells take in too much water, cytolysis can occur. Hypertonic solutions also have higher osmotic pressure than red blood cells, causing the cells to shed water. Crenation of red blood cells occurs in hypertonic solutions, leading to a decrease in the ability to carry oxygen.


HELP WITH HOMEWORK! What would happen to Blood cells in the following solutions?

What would happen to red blood cells in the following solutions:

And what approximately would their light scatter be?

1 Answer

Explanation:

I think the ion concentration in red blood cells is about 300mM, or about 300 milliosmolarity. Basically means that of all the dissolved ions in a red blood cell, the concentration of them is about 300 mM, or 0.3M

For the sake of this discussion, water flows from where it is a higher concentration to where it is a lower concentration. Or said the other way, water flows from lower osmolarity to higher osmolarity (since water is higher in concentration in a lower osmolarity solution).

Pure water: the red blood cell will swell and probably burst, since water will flow into it.

The osmolarty of this solution is 0.15M (0.075 + 0.075) - for osmotic pressure, it doens't matter the identity of the solute, just that there is a solute (within reason). So water will flow into the red blood cell. and swell it. maybe burst, maybe not.

0.4M NaCl is a 0.8M osmolarity solution, and so the water is higher concentration in the red blood cell. This means water will flow OUT of the redblood cell, and it will shrivel, shrink.

0.28M Urea - urea is not ionic, but it is still dissolved solute. It is less concentrated that the red blood cell, so water will flow into the red blood cell, but only slightly. (assuming 0.3M osmolarity red blood cell).

Again, I'm assuming the red blood cell is 0.3 osmolarity. (0.3M osmolarity)


What solution is hypotonic to red blood cells?

When RBCs are placed in a hypertonic salt solution, water moves from inside the cell to the outside by osmosis. This causes the cells to shrink. When RBCs are placed in distilled water, a hypotonic solution, water moves from outside of the cell to the inside, causing the cell to swell and rupture.

One may also ask, what is hypotonic solution? A hypotonic solution is any solution that has a lower osmotic pressure than another solution. In the biological fields, this generally refers to a solution that has less solute and more water than another solution.

Likewise, what happens if a red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic solution?

When a cell is placed in a hypotonic environment, water will enter the cell, and the cell will swell. If placed in a hypotonic solution, a red blood cell will bloat up and may explode, while in a hypertonic solution, it will shrivel&mdashmaking the cytoplasm dense and its contents concentrated&mdashand may die.

What happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution?

Hypotonic Solution. In a hypotonic solution, the solute concentration is lower than inside the cell. Depending on the amount of water that enters, the cell may look enlarged or bloated. If the water continues to move into the cell, it can stretch the cell membrane to the point the cell bursts (lyses) and dies.


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The Journey of a Red Blood Cell

Red Blood Cells (also known as Erythrocytes), are cellular components of blood. There are millions of them within the human body and their sole purpose is to carry oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body, as well as carrying carbon dioxide to the lungs so it can be exhaled. The blood cell is characterised by a red colour due to the presence of hemoglobin, which is a protein that helps bind oxygen to the cell.

The red blood cell goes through a complex journey through the body, going from a deoxygenated blood cell to an oxygenated blood cell, and entering the heart twice. Below, we&rsquove laid out the journey of a red blood cell in the human body:

Step 1 - Creation of the Red Blood Cell

The journey starts with the red cell being created inside the bone. In the bone marrow, it develops in several stages starting as a hemocytoblast, then becoming an erythroblast after 2 to 5 days of development. After filling with hemoglobin it becomes a reticulocyte, which then becomes a fully matured red blood cell. This will be of a specific blood type, determined by the presence or absence of certain antibodies - learn more about blood grouping products here.

Step 2 - The Red Blood Cell's Journey begins

After creation, the red blood cell starts travelling to the heart via capillaries. The blood cell is currently deoxygenated.

Step 3 - Entering the Heart

The deoxygenated red blood cell now makes its way to the vena cava within the heart, and is then pushed into the right atrium.

The right atrium then contracts, pushing the blood cell through the tricuspid into the right ventricle.

The right ventricle then contracts, pushing the red blood cell out of the heart through the semi lunar.

Step 4 - Entering the Lungs and Oxygenation

After leaving the heart, the red blood cell travels through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. There it picks up oxygen making the deoxygenated red blood cell now an oxygenated blood cell. The blood cell then makes it way back to the heart via the pulmonary vein into the left atrium.

Step 5 - Re-entering the heart

After entering the left atrium, which then contracts and pushes the blood cell through the bicuspid, the red blood cell then enters the left ventricle.

The left ventricle then contracts, pushing the red blood cell through the semi lunar, and out of the heart into the aorta.

Step 6 - Travelling around the body

Travelling through the aorta, the red blood cell goes into the kidneys trunk and other lower limbs, delivering oxygenated blood around the body. They typically last for 120 days before they die.

And that&rsquos the whole process! Although this seems like a lengthy process, the whole thing takes less than a minute from start to finish, depending on the individual&rsquos heart rate.

In some cases such as illnesses or blood loss following injury or childbirth, the body may have too few red blood cells to provide the oxygen required by the body's extremities. This is where a blood transfusion becomes vital. At Lorne Laboratories all our blood grouping reagents and red cell products comply with the UK Red Book Standards to ensure safe blood transfusions.

Got questions about our products and how they impact the journey of the red blood cell? Email our team at Lorne Labs HQ and we'll be happy to assist you.


RESULTS

Chloride transport

Fig. 1 shows the 36 Cl − efflux curves under self-exchange conditions in RBC at an extracellular chloride concentrations of 150 mmol l −1 (chick, duck, dog and human) and 127 mmol l −1 (Amphiuma). For comparison, the figure shows efflux curves at 25°C, the physiological temperature of Amphiuma, while the physiological temperatures are 37–40°C of the other four species. The rate coefficients were used to calculate PCl at the given chloride concentrations (see Eqns 1, 2 and 3, Table 2). The efflux curve of dog RBC (dashed line) was determined by interpolation of the data obtained at 38 and 0°C and an EA of 89.6 kJ mol −1 [see Table 3, which also summarises EA of the PCl of duck (4–40°C) and Amphiuma RBC (5–30°C)].

Urea transport

Urea transport in chick RBC is as low as in lipid bilayer membranes, while in human RBC it is high and saturates (Brahm and Wieth, 1977 Brahm, 1983b). The present study confirms and extends earlier studies. The efflux curves in Fig. 2 further show that duck RBC transport urea almost as slowly as chick RBC, while Amphiuma, dog and human RBC transport urea much faster. For comparison, the efflux rates of urea were all determined at 1 mmol l −1 urea and 25°C. Calculation of Purea (Eqn 3) shows that Purea of chicks and ducks is very low, Purea of Amphiuma is

30 times higher, and Purea of dogs and humans is

Chloride, urea and diffusional water permeability of RBC from chick, duck, Amphiuma, dog and human at 25°C and pH 7.2–7.4

F1vzjmR-Y-aRYA__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAIE5G5CRDK6RD3PGA" />

Fig. 3 depicts Purea dependence on urea concentration in RBC of the five species at 25°C. Purea of chick and duck RBC is concentration independent at [urea]=1–500 mmol l −1 . In contrast, Purea of Amphiuma, dog and human RBC decreased with increasing [urea] to 1000 mmol l −1 in accordance with the concept of saturation kinetics. Urea transport in RBC of the three species is well described by a Michaelis–Menten-like expression (Eqn 4). Table 4 summarises and K½.

The temperature dependence of Purea in duck RBC is 69.6 kJ mol −1 (4–40°C) and in Amphiuma RBC is 53.3 kJ mol −1 (0–25°C) (Table 3).

Water transport

Fig. 4 shows the diffusional efflux of 3 H2O of the five species at 25°C and pH 7.2–7.5. T½ of 3 H2O efflux varies from 7 ms in duck to 154 ms in Amphiuma RBC. The Pd values of the RBC of the five species are summarised in Table 2. Pd was determined in RBC from two human donors whose Purea varies by >100% (Brahm, 1983b). Their Purea and Pd values are summarised in Table 5. EA of Pd in duck RBC with the highest Pd (4–40°C) and Amphiuma with lowest Pd (5–30°C) is similar, 32–35 kJ mol −1 (Table 3).

Apparent activation energy of chloride and urea self-exchange and diffusive water transport in RBC from five species

V5RUxoAm-MWsu22HEyARBO4c8DOc-OX-Zi8P8dOsoVkOVBcq3wUQIbARZ5kLFCtMW612RWBjhIQZAeCvgV7K0-g__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAIE5G5CRDK6RD3PGA" />

Concentration dependence of urea permeability (Purea) under self-exchange conditions in RBC from five species at 25°C and pH 7.2–7.5. The decline of Purea with increasing urea concentration in RBC of dogs, human and Amphiuma reflects saturation kinetics of urea transport. Each point is an average of two to five efflux experiments, shown in Fig. 2. Standard deviations are shown in experiments where they exceed the size of the symbols (dog).

Concentration dependence of urea permeability (Purea) under self-exchange conditions in RBC from five species at 25°C and pH 7.2–7.5. The decline of Purea with increasing urea concentration in RBC of dogs, human and Amphiuma reflects saturation kinetics of urea transport. Each point is an average of two to five efflux experiments, shown in Fig. 2. Standard deviations are shown in experiments where they exceed the size of the symbols (dog).

Inhibition of solute transport

Table 6 summarises the inhibitory effects of DIDS, DNDS, PCMBS, PCMB and phloretin on chloride, urea and water transport in the five RBC species as determined in the present and previous studies. The results (data not shown) of the present study are from double or triple determinations of efflux rate coefficients.


Osmosis in eggplant and potato cells

Materials

  • Thin slice of eggplant
  • Two slices of potato pre-cut
  • NaCl (table salt)
  • 2 test tubes
  • 10% NaCl solution
  • 1 piece of weigh paper or plastic

Procedure

  1. Obtain a thin slice of eggplant. Sprinkle the eggplant with salt. Place on a piece of plastic or weigh paper. Incubate at room temperature for approximately 10 minutes.
  2. Obtain two pieces of peeled potato, approximately 2 cm X 0.25cm. Label two test tubes with a wax marker at the 5 cm point
    Tube 1: Add distilled water to the 5 cm mark
    Tube 2: Add 10% sodium chloride to the 5 cm mark

Add a potato piece to each tube and incubate at room temperature for

15 minutes Pour off the solution and feel each potato piece. Rinse test-tubes thoroughly with water to remove traces of salt and potato starch

Observations

Describe how the eggplant slice looks.

In terms of osmosis, why does it appear this way?

Were eggplant cells exposed to a hypertonic or a hypotonic environment (choose 1)

What is the experimental variable in the potato experiment?

Identify 2 controlled variables in the potato experiment

Which potato piece is stiff? Explain why with respect to osmosis.

What happens to human red blood cells when placed in saline, an isotonic solution?

A slug is a garden pest. Why, in terms of osmosis, do some people salt slugs?


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Watch the video: ERY - Die Reise eines roten Blutkörperchens (June 2022).