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6.6: Conclusion and Resources - Biology

6.6: Conclusion and Resources - Biology


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Conclusion

Reflect on what you observed today in your microscope and the images provided, along with what you know about the organisms’ life cycles. Relate what you observed of their structures, size, life stages, etc., to what you know about their ability to cause disease or what you think might help them survive and their potential for causing disease.

Resources

Parasites- http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/about.html


Breakdown of Kenya’s new 2-6-6-3 education curriculum framework: Subject Taught

The 8-4-4 system of education which started in 1985 is coming to an end to pave away for Kenya’s new 2-6-6-3 (2-6-3-3-3) education curriculum framework.

NOTE: The new system is gradually being rolled out and therefore the old system of education (8-4-4) is still in use from Class 5 (Grade 5) to University level (As at August 2020).

Basic education model of the new curriculum 2-6-6-3 system in Kenya/Photo


Introduction

Within an organism, differential rates of evolution exist in both the nuclear and the organelle genomes. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA, in particular, has provided an interesting framework to examine genome dynamics. Among a variety of model systems ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to Drosophila melanogaster, mutation rates in the mt genome are consistently higher than in the nuclear genome (Denver 2000 Haag-Liautard et al. 2008). This is also the case in yeast (Lynch et al. 2006, 2008), and has been explained by the presence of more reactive oxygen species, increased replication rates and a lack of sufficient repair proteins (Solieri 2010) in the mt DNA. However, it is evident that purifying selection plays an important part in mt genome maintenance (Denver 2000 Jung et al. 2012). Thus, although elevated mutational pressures characterize the evolution of mt genomes, purging selection guarantees coding sequence functionality. The extent to which selection shapes genome evolution of different yeast species has not been adequately explored.

The availability of complete mt genomes in more than 40 lineages of the Saccharomycotina (Solieri 2010 Gaillardin et al. 2012) has provided insight concerning the evolution of an entire phylum. Among these genomes, there is a core set of conserved genes, including three subunits of ATP synthetase (ATP6, ATP8, and ATP9), apocytochrome b (COB), three subunits of cytochrome oxidase (COX1, COX2, and COX3), the large and small rRNA genes, and a complete set of tRNA genes. Other genes, in particular those encoding the subunits of NADH dehydrogenase, VAR1 and the RNA subunit of the mitochondrial RNAse P (RPM1) (Jung et al. 2009) are not present in all mt genomes. Additionally, mtDNA organization, architecture, and size are different among species, with mtDNA ranging from 11 to 85 kb in length in Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively (Foury et al. 1998 Pramateftaki et al. 2006). Yeast mtDNA can be rich in introns and long noncoding regions, which account for these differences in size (Friedrich et al. 2012 Gaillardin et al. 2012). The gene order among mtDNA in the Saccharomycotina is highly variable and the result of multiple rearrangements (Solieri 2010). It is clear that the genetic architecture can also be quite diverse, as some genomes are organized as linear concatemers whereas others are circular monomers (Solieri 2010). Research concerning closely related lineages demonstrates, however, that on a shorter evolutionary timescale, gene content, and synteny are generally conserved across species whereas intron content and intergenic regions are not (Kosa et al. 2006 Friedrich et al. 2012 Gaillardin et al. 2012).

The first study to focus on mt genome diversity in multiple strains of a single yeast species was completed with Lachancea kluyveri (Jung et al. 2012). This work found that the mt genomes ranged in size from 50.1 to 53.7 kb, due to changes in intron content, while, all protein-coding genes were syntenic. Most interestingly, the genomes were extremely polymorphic, especially in the intergenic regions, suggesting that these regions have evolved rapidly in L. kluyveri. Although careful examination of L. kluyveri was a step toward understanding mtDNA evolution, the extent to which these results mirror intraspecific mt genome evolution in other clades was unknown.

Recently, multiple species from the Lachancea genus were analyzed to explore interspecific variation across closely related lineages (Friedrich et al. 2012). The mt genomes share a similar architecture as well as a syntenic organization of genes. Intriguingly, although the protein sequences are remarkably alike, the intergenic regions are extremely variable, indicating that most mt genes are under purifying selection across the entire Lachancea genus. Both the nuclear and mt genomes of the Lachancea thermotolerans type strain CBS 6340 T were previously sequenced (Talla et al. 2005). This isolate was originally obtained from fermenting plum jam in 1932 and is commonly found in association with fruit, Drosophila sp. and other insects. Analysis of the Lachancea genus revealed that L. kluyveri and L. thermotolerans, respectively, represent both the largest (51.5 kb) and smallest (23.6 kb) genomes in the clade. Apart from the discrepancy in size, the GC content, the percentage of the genome dedicated to intergenic regions, and the number of introns also distinguish these species. Thus, analysis of the intraspecific diversity within L. thermotolerans is key to determine if the patterns of divergence in the intergenic and coding regions in L. kluyveri reflect those in other yeast species.

Here, we sequenced the genomes of 50 L. thermotolerans isolates representing a range of locations (Europe, Asia, Australia, South Africa, South America, and North America) and substrates (fruit, tree exudate, plant material, and grape and agave fermentations), in order to investigate intraspecific species diversity. We used the previously available and completely assembled mt genome of L. thermotolerans CBS 6340 T as a reference. The genome of the type strain is 23,584 bp and shares all genes with L. kluyveri (Jung et al. 2012). From a phylogenetic tree constructed with the concatenated CDS of the 50 mt genomes, eight strains were chosen for de novo mt genome assembly. In comparison to L. kluyveri, the intergenic regions are smaller and only the COX1 gene harbors introns. Interestingly, mt genomes among L. thermotolerans isolates are highly conserved, have low dN/dS values across all protein-coding genes and appear to be under more extreme levels of purifying selection than in L. kluyveri. In addition, an analysis of 50 randomly chosen nuclear genes revealed that L. thermotolerans and L. kluyveri share similar levels of divergence at the nuclear genome level. This study is an important step in elucidating intraspecific mtDNA diversity in yeast, and demonstrates that differential selection pressures can act on mt genomes even among closely related species.


Pasteur Experiment

Today, we take many things in science for granted. Many experiments have been performed and much knowledge has been accumulated that people didn’t always know. For centuries, people based their beliefs on their interpretations of what they saw going on in the world around them without testing their ideas to determine the validity of these theories — in other words, they didn’t use the scientific method to arrive at answers to their questions. Rather, their conclusions were based on untested observations.

Among these ideas, for centuries, since at least the time of Aristotle (4th Century BC), people (including scientists) believed that simple living organisms could come into being by spontaneous generation. This was the idea that non-living objects can give rise to living organisms. It was common “knowledge” that simple organisms like worms, beetles, frogs, and salamanders could come from dust, mud, etc., and food left out, quickly “swarmed” with life. For example:

Observation: Every year in the spring, the Nile River flooded areas of Egypt along the river, leaving behind nutrient-rich mud that enabled the people to grow that year’s crop of food. However, along with the muddy soil, large numbers of frogs appeared that weren’t around in drier times. Conclusion: It was perfectly obvious to people back then that muddy soil gave rise to the frogs.

In this experiment, you will conduct an experiment similar to the one done by Pasteur whenever he disproved spontaneous generation.


6.6: Conclusion and Resources - Biology

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6.6: Conclusion and Resources - Biology

Research
Invertebrate Neurobiology
Publications (htm) (pdf)
Teaching
Invertebrate Biology
Neurobiology / Bioethics

DOCUMENT & IMAGE REPRODUCTION POLICY : You may copy & distribute any documents or images herein for non-profit, educational purposes, so long as original authorship credits are properly ascribed on documents & images. If you adapt or modify materials, then clear designation of modifications should be made, so that names of original author(s) & new author(s) are properly matched to components that each authored .

Discovering and Investigating Paleozoic (Devonian) Microfossils [ NEW Hands-on inquiry with microfossils includes methods for collecting, isolating & handling. Presented at 2004 NABT & 2005 ABLE meetings [ M icrofossil images] [PowerPt- NABT]
McWorm: Invertebrate Fast Food [Use Lumbriculus variegatus (blackworms) to study predation & feeding behaviors in Hydra [ hydra-A ] [ hydra-B ] Planaria, crayfish, Triops, leeches, ostracods & freshwater tropical fish. Co-author: K. Cain, 4 pp] [See predation at: http://www.kirkwood.cc.ia.us/faculty/bharvey/cbnmindex.htm Then, select: Species Interactions ] [COMMERCIAL KIT]
Days of Our Spineless Lives < PDF-file > [Interdisciplinary, creative writing activity. Students write a first-person essay incorporating researched answers to more than 30 questions about biology & natural history of an invertebrate. Co-authored with L. Ihrig 12 pp]
Americas Most Wanted Invertebrates < PDF-file > [Students integrate invertebrate biology content into a creative written/pictorial profile, resulting in a fugitive wanted poster. Activity parallels Days of Our Spineless Lives (above), co-authored with L. Ihrig10 pp]
New Views of Daphnids NEW [Simple method to restrain daphnids underwater on a tether, allowing unimpaired movements of appendages & clear view of daphnid anatomy, physiology & behavior. Many possible investigations 4 pp] [See: daphnid swimming] [daphnid eye rotation]
Low-Life Limericks [Invertebrate limericks NEW : hydra, tardigrade, centipede, millipede, planaria, brine shrimp, mite, leech, daphnid, freshwater jellyfish, snail, crayfish, spider, cockroach, & nematode illustrated 2 pp]
Vinegar Eels [Hard-to-find biology background about Turbatrix aceti, the vinegar eel (Phylum Nematoda). Isolation methods & ideas for student inquiry 4 pp] INTERACTIVE ANIMATION of nematode swimming] [ computations for vinegar eel swimming ]
Biological Smoke Detectors < pdf file > [Toxicology mini-manual, or primer, for students & teachers. Background info & ideas for using invertebrates for ecotoxicity testing. Ideas for student research & science fair projects. Kansas School Naturalist, vol. 50 (1)1-15, Dec., 2003 - multiple copies available on request ]
Putting Your Best Root Forward: PORTFOLIO for a PLANT NEW [Assigned project in which students research & create an employment portfolio for a plant (= a showcase of ecological niche for a selected plant species).] NOTE: Plants are invertebrates, too! :-)

For hard copy, specify article(s) & give complete mailing address (school or home). Send requests to:
EMAIL: [email protected] PH: 515-294-8061 WEB: http://www.eeob.iastate.edu/faculty/DrewesC/htdocs/
MAIL: Charles Drewes, EEOB Dept, Rm 503 Sci-II Bldg, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 USA

A Toolbox for Working With Living Invertebrates [Inexpensive materials & methods for collecting, handling & investigating living invertebrates. Excerpts from an article published in 26th Proceedings of Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE).
Microrulers [Make 10 microrulers for measuring small objects, under a dissecting scope, to the nearest 0.1 mm. Rulers are tiny, flexible & laminated. ]
Pencil Pipet Technique [Simple, reliable way to transfer small invertebrates in small fluid volumes using stretched plastic pipet or capillary tube. Deliver tiny blackworm fragments to Hydra or Planaria to study prey capture & feeding 2 pp] [ stretch pipet ] NEW [suck up microfossils]
The Handy-Dandy FleX-Acto Invertebrate Detachment Tool [Simple tool for lab/field [ FleX-Acto tool ] Rapid, safe removal of invertebrates from rock, wood, glass surfaces. Detach planaria , hydra, NEW leech cocoon, snail egg mass , snails & caddisfly larvae, 2 pp]
Pour-Person Plankton Net [Cheap way to collect & concentrate zooplankton in lab or field. 2 pp] [ photo of net ]
Mini-Widgets [Simple, creature-friendly tools [ widgets ] for manipulating small, living invertebrates, such as molluscs, annelids, small crustaceans, insects, bryozoa, etc. Use instead of metal dissecting probes or toothpicks. 1p] NEW [pick up dry microfossils]
Making Flexible Foam Well Slides [Make simple, unbreakable, re-usable, non-seeping well slides from acetate sheets, foam tape, or foam sheets great for viewing small aquatic invertebrates with compound or dissecting microscope 2 pp] [ Foam slide ]
Tape Well Slides [Easy-to-make, unbreakable, leak-proof, clear-bottomed, well-slides with customizable well dimensions. Excellent for viewing aquatic oligochaetes, planaria, rotifers, pond water, etc.]
Many-view Mini-box [A 15-cent, reusable, leak-proof, small viewbox (= plastic spectrophotometric cuvet) with soft rubber cork [ minibox ] view living planaria, hydra, snails, zooplankton, small leeches, insects from all sides with stereo or compound scope 2 pp]
Water < pdf file > [Compares desirable & undesirable sources of water for maintenance/culture of invertebrates 1 p]
Food for Aquatic Invertebrates [ Updated Food for brine shrimp, freshwater snails, freshwater oligochaetes, etc 2 pp]
New Light on Phototaxis and Phototropism [Make & use ultra-bright LEDs for phototaxis inquiry in invertebrates & phototropism in plants [ phototropism ]. Write-up has photobiology background, practical ideas, references, commercial sources/catalog numbers for components, circuit designs for battery/AC power.11 pp] NEW inquire [red-LED probe] [blue-LED probe] Phototaxis: [daphnids] [ostracods]
Auxiliary LED Illuminator System for Brock Microscopes NEW [ View-1 View-2 , View-3 .] Inquire
ILLUM-11 high-brightness, low-heat microscope illuminator NEW [ILLUM-11 photo] Inquire
Portascope [Portable low-power microscope. Ultra-bright LED provides sub-stage or above-stage lighting. Portascope w/canister LED Portascope with built-in LED: front view & side view] Inquire
Biological Smoke Detectors < pdf file > [A toxicology mini-manual, or primer, for students or teachers. Background info & ideas for using invertebrates (e.g., Lumbriculus or earthworms) for ecotoxicity testing in student research or science fair projects. Kansas School Naturalist, vol 50:1-15, Dec, 2003 - multiple copies available on request ] [web version w/no figures].

For hard copy, specify article(s) & give complete mailing address (school or home). Send request to:
EMAIL: [email protected] PH: 515-294-8061 WEB: http://www.eeob.iastate.edu/faculty/DrewesC/htdocs/
MAIL: Charlie Drewes, EEOB Dept, Rm 503 Sci-II Bldg, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 USA

Those Wonderful Worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) [Illustrated article Carolina Tips, Aug., 1996, vol. 59, no. 3, 4 pp].
Lumbriculus variegatus: Commercial Sources NEW [List of sources for Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic oligochaete) 1 p]
Culturing Lumbriculus variegatus < PDF file > [Brief explanation for culturing Lumbriculus in the lab, 1 p]
Lumbriculus variegatus: A Biology Profile [Background about taxonomy, lifestyle, reproduction, muscle, circulation & behavior of blackworms (Lumbriculus) - not found in general or advanced texts 4 pp]
Lumbriculus variegatus photos [ Habitat For Wormanity-A ] [ Habitat for Wormanity-B ] [ worm-1 ] [ worm-2 ] [ worm-3 ] [ worm anatomy ][Cross-sections]
Biology Facts about Mudworms < PDF file > [Brief summary of Lumbriculus (blackworm) biology 1 p]
As the Worm Turns [Investigate Lumbriculus crawling, swimming & reversal behavior Am. Biol. Teacher, 61:438-442) INTERACTIVE ANIMATIONS: [Lumbriculus swimming] , [oligochaete crawling] [Lumbriculus body reversal] [ helical swimming computations ]
Heads or Tails NEW > Regeneration lab writeup [Detailed exercise on head & tail regeneration in Lumbriculus published in Proc.Assoc.for Biology Lab. Educ. (ABLE), Vol. 17, 1996 pp. 23-34. (pdf file) ] [ Regenerated fragment ] [ R egeneration animation]
Blackworms, Blood Vessel Pulsation and Drug Effects (pdf file) [Student lab exercise on pulse rate & drug effects in Lumbriculus dorsal blood vessel Am. Biol. Teacher, 61:48-53. [View of dorsal & lateral blood vessels] See INTERACTIVE ANIMATIONS of pulsations: [mid-body pulse rate] [posterior pulse rate] [pulse velocity] NEW: [Worms in tape-well slides] NEW: [Calculate blood volume through dorsal vessel]
Non-invasive Recording of Giant Nerve Fiber Action Potentials from Freely Moving Oligochaetes [Record all-or-none spikes from giant nerve fibers in intact Lumbriculus Proc Assoc Biol Lab Educ (ABLE), 20:45-62, 1999. worm AP-1 worm AP-2 ] [Oligochaete Giant Axons -PowerPt slides]
Functional Organization of the Nervous System in Lumbriculus variegatus < pdf file > [Background information about Lumbriculus nervous system - not in general or advanced texts 4 pp] [Cross-sections]
Worm Limericks < PDF file > [Lumbriculus poetry 1 p]
Biological Smoke Detectors < pdf file > [Toxicology mini-manual, or primer, for students or teachers. Background info & ideas for using invertebrates (e.g., Lumbriculus or earthworms) for ecotoxicity testing in student research or science fair projects. Kansas School Naturalist, vol. 50 (1)1-15, Dec., 2003 - multiple copies available on request ]
Through a Looking Glass - Version I [Inquiry-based lab utilizing worms tendencies to crawl into capillary tubes (thigmotaxis, gving clear views of internal/external features & functions in Lumbriculus, 8 pp co-author: B. Grosz] NEW [worms in tubes] [ worm anatomy ]
Through a Looking Glass - Version II < pdf file > [Inquiry-based lab exercise. View internal & external features of whole worms, Lumbriculus, or worm fragments, using flat-tipped culture tubes. 2 pp]
McWorm: Invertebrate Fast Food [Use Lumbriculus variegatus (blackworms) to study predatory attack & feeding behavior in Hydra [ hydra-A ] [ hydra-B ] Planaria , crayfish, Triops, leeches & freshwater tropical fish. Co-author: K. Cain. 4 pp] [COMMERCIAL KIT]
Papyrus terrestris [Build 24-inch-long model of oligochaete worm that shows biomechanics of peristaltic locomotion in oligochaete worms, including circular & longitudinal muscle actions, plus protraction & retraction of chaetae 1 p] [see oligochaete crawling]

ABLE-2003 : D ownloadable PowerPt files show freeze-frame images of invertebrate locomotion. Use with Invertebrate LocOlympics lab writeup (NOTE: Files vary from 500-1100 kB) SELECT >>


Contents

Globally, buildings are responsible for a huge share of energy, electricity, water and materials consumption. The building sector has the greatest potential to deliver significant cuts in emissions at little or no cost. In 2004, building emissions from electricity use and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions contributed to 33% of the global total emissions. [9] [ verification needed ] As of 2018, buildings account for 28% of global emissions or 9.7 billion tonnes of CO2. Including the manufacturing of building materials, the global CO2 emissions were 39%. [10] If new technologies in construction are not adopted during this time of rapid growth, emissions could double by 2050, according to the United Nations Environment Program. Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of building. Since construction almost always degrades a building site, not building at all is preferable to green building, in terms of reducing environmental impact. The second rule is that every building should be as small as possible. The third rule is not to contribute to sprawl, even if the most energy-efficient, environmentally sound methods are used in design and construction.

Buildings account for a large amount of land. According to the National Resources Inventory, approximately 107 million acres (430,000 km 2 ) of land in the United States are developed. The International Energy Agency released a publication that estimated that existing buildings are responsible for more than 40% of the world’s total primary energy consumption and for 24% of global carbon dioxide emissions. [11] [ need quotation to verify ] [12]

The concept of sustainable development can be traced to the energy (especially fossil oil) crisis and environmental pollution concerns of the 1960s and 1970s. [13] The Rachel Carson book, “Silent Spring”, [14] published in 1962, is considered to be one of the first initial efforts to describe sustainable development as related to green building. [13] The green building movement in the U.S. originated from the need and desire for more energy efficient and environmentally friendly construction practices. There are a number of motives for building green, including environmental, economic, and social benefits. [15] However, modern sustainability initiatives call for an integrated and synergistic design to both new construction and in the retrofitting of existing structures. Also known as sustainable design, this approach integrates the building life-cycle with each green practice employed with a design-purpose to create a synergy among the practices used.

Green building brings together a vast array of practices, techniques, and skills to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic equipment, and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and reduction of rainwater run-off. Many other techniques are used, such as using low-impact building materials or using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of groundwater.

While the practices or technologies employed in green building are constantly evolving and may differ from region to region, fundamental principles persist from which the method is derived: siting and structure design efficiency, energy efficiency, water efficiency, materials efficiency, indoor environmental quality enhancement, operations and maintenance optimization and waste and toxics reduction. [16] [17] The essence of green building is an optimization of one or more of these principles. Also, with the proper synergistic design, individual green building technologies may work together to produce a greater cumulative effect.

On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that is in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy.

Life cycle assessment Edit

A life cycle assessment (LCA) can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental, social and economic concerns [18] by assessing a full range of impacts associated with all cradle-to-grave stages of a process: from extraction of raw materials through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling. Impacts taken into account include (among others) embodied energy, global warming potential, resource use, air pollution, water pollution, and waste.

In terms of green building, the last few years have seen a shift away from a prescriptive approach, which assumes that certain prescribed practices are better for the environment, toward the scientific evaluation of actual performance through LCA.

Although LCA is widely recognized as the best way to evaluate the environmental impacts of buildings (ISO 14040 provides a recognized LCA methodology), [19] it is not yet a consistent requirement of green building rating systems and codes, despite the fact that embodied energy and other life cycle impacts are critical to the design of environmentally responsible buildings.

In North America, LCA is rewarded to some extent in the Green Globes rating system, and is part of the new American National Standard based on Green Globes, ANSI/GBI 01-2010: Green Building Protocol for Commercial Buildings. LCA is also included as a pilot credit in the LEED system, though a decision has not been made as to whether it will be incorporated fully into the next major revision. The state of California also included LCA as a voluntary measure in its 2010 draft Green Building Standards Code.

Although LCA is often perceived as overly complex and time consuming for regular use by design professionals, research organizations such as BRE in the UK and the Athena Sustainable Materials Institute in North America are working to make it more accessible. [20]

In the UK, the BRE Green Guide to Specifications offers ratings for 1,500 building materials based on LCA.

Siting and structure design efficiency Edit

The foundation of any construction project is rooted in the concept and design stages. The concept stage, in fact, is one of the major steps in a project life cycle, as it has the largest impact on cost and performance. [21] In designing environmentally optimal buildings, the objective is to minimize the total environmental impact associated with all life-cycle stages of the building project.

However, building as a process is not as streamlined as an industrial process, and varies from one building to the other, never repeating itself identically. In addition, buildings are much more complex products, composed of a multitude of materials and components each constituting various design variables to be decided at the design stage. A variation of every design variable may affect the environment during all the building's relevant life-cycle stages. [22]

Energy efficiency Edit

Green buildings often include measures to reduce energy consumption – both the embodied energy required to extract, process, transport and install building materials and operating energy to provide services such as heating and power for equipment.

As high-performance buildings use less operating energy, embodied energy has assumed much greater importance – and may make up as much as 30% of the overall life cycle energy consumption. Studies such as the U.S. LCI Database Project [23] show buildings built primarily with wood will have a lower embodied energy than those built primarily with brick, concrete, or steel. [24]

To reduce operating energy use, designers use details that reduce air leakage through the building envelope (the barrier between conditioned and unconditioned space). They also specify high-performance windows and extra insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors. Another strategy, passive solar building design, is often implemented in low-energy homes. Designers orient windows and walls and place awnings, porches, and trees [25] to shade windows and roofs during the summer while maximizing solar gain in the winter. In addition, effective window placement (daylighting) can provide more natural light and lessen the need for electric lighting during the day. Solar water heating further reduces energy costs.

Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building.

Energy efficiency for green buildings can be evaluated from either numerical or non-numerical methods. These include use of simulation modelling, analytical or statistical tools. [26]

Water efficiency Edit

Reducing water consumption and protecting water quality are key objectives in sustainable building. One critical issue of water consumption is that in many areas, the demands on the supplying aquifer exceed its ability to replenish itself. To the maximum extent feasible, facilities should increase their dependence on water that is collected, used, purified, and reused on-site. The protection and conservation of water throughout the life of a building may be accomplished by designing for dual plumbing that recycles water in toilet flushing or by using water for washing of the cars. Waste-water may be minimized by utilizing water conserving fixtures such as ultra-low flush toilets and low-flow shower heads. [27] Bidets help eliminate the use of toilet paper, reducing sewer traffic and increasing possibilities of re-using water on-site. Point of use water treatment and heating improves both water quality and energy efficiency while reducing the amount of water in circulation. The use of non-sewage and greywater for on-site use such as site-irrigation will minimize demands on the local aquifer. [28]

Large commercial buildings with water and energy efficiency can qualify for an LEED Certification. Philadelphia's Comcast Center is the tallest building in Philadelphia. It's also one of the tallest buildings in the USA that is LEED Certified. Their environmental engineering consists of a hybrid central chilled water system which cools floor-by-floor with steam instead of water. Burn's Mechanical set-up the entire renovation of the 58 story, 1.4 million square foot sky scraper.

Materials efficiency Edit

Building materials typically considered to be 'green' include lumber from forests that have been certified to a third-party forest standard, rapidly renewable plant materials like bamboo and straw, dimension stone, recycled stone, recycled metal (see: copper sustainability and recyclability), and other products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, and/or recyclable. For concrete a high performance or Roman self-healing concrete is available. [29] [30] The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) also suggests using recycled industrial goods, such as coal combustion products, foundry sand, and demolition debris in construction projects. [31] Energy efficient building materials and appliances are promoted in the United States through energy rebate programs.

Indoor environmental quality enhancement Edit

The Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) category in LEED standards, one of the five environmental categories, was created to provide comfort, well-being, and productivity of occupants. The LEED IEQ category addresses design and construction guidelines especially: indoor air quality (IAQ), thermal quality, and lighting quality. [32] [33] [34]

Indoor Air Quality seeks to reduce volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, and other air impurities such as microbial contaminants. Buildings rely on a properly designed ventilation system (passively/naturally or mechanically powered) to provide adequate ventilation of cleaner air from outdoors or recirculated, filtered air as well as isolated operations (kitchens, dry cleaners, etc.) from other occupancies. During the design and construction process choosing construction materials and interior finish products with zero or low VOC emissions will improve IAQ. Most building materials and cleaning/maintenance products emit gases, some of them toxic, such as many VOCs including formaldehyde. These gases can have a detrimental impact on occupants' health, comfort, and productivity. Avoiding these products will increase a building's IEQ. LEED, [35] HQE [36] and Green Star contain specifications on use of low-emitting interior. Draft LEED 2012 [37] is about to expand the scope of the involved products. BREEAM [38] limits formaldehyde emissions, no other VOCs. MAS Certified Green is a registered trademark to delineate low VOC-emitting products in the marketplace. [39] The MAS Certified Green Program ensures that any potentially hazardous chemicals released from manufactured products have been thoroughly tested and meet rigorous standards established by independent toxicologists to address recognized long term health concerns. These IAQ standards have been adopted by and incorporated into the following programs:

  • The United States Green Building Council (USGBC) in their LEED rating system [40]
  • The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) in their section 01350 standards [41]
  • The Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) in their Best Practices Manual [42]
  • The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA) in their level® sustainability standard. [43]

Also important to indoor air quality is the control of moisture accumulation (dampness) leading to mold growth and the presence of bacteria and viruses as well as dust mites and other organisms and microbiological concerns. Water intrusion through a building's envelope or water condensing on cold surfaces on the building's interior can enhance and sustain microbial growth. A well-insulated and tightly sealed envelope will reduce moisture problems but adequate ventilation is also necessary to eliminate moisture from sources indoors including human metabolic processes, cooking, bathing, cleaning, and other activities. [44]

Personal temperature and airflow control over the HVAC system coupled with a properly designed building envelope will also aid in increasing a building's thermal quality. Creating a high performance luminous environment through the careful integration of daylight and electrical light sources will improve on the lighting quality and energy performance of a structure. [28] [45]

Solid wood products, particularly flooring, are often specified in environments where occupants are known to have allergies to dust or other particulates. Wood itself is considered to be hypo-allergenic and its smooth surfaces prevent the buildup of particles common in soft finishes like carpet. The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America recommends hardwood, vinyl, linoleum tile or slate flooring instead of carpet. [46] The use of wood products can also improve air quality by absorbing or releasing moisture in the air to moderate humidity. [47]

Interactions among all the indoor components and the occupants together form the processes that determine the indoor air quality. Extensive investigation of such processes is the subject of indoor air scientific research and is well documented in the journal Indoor Air. [48]

Operations and maintenance optimization Edit

No matter how sustainable a building may have been in its design and construction, it can only remain so if it is operated responsibly and maintained properly. Ensuring operations and maintenance(O&M) personnel are part of the project's planning and development process will help retain the green criteria designed at the onset of the project. [49] Every aspect of green building is integrated into the O&M phase of a building's life. The addition of new green technologies also falls on the O&M staff. Although the goal of waste reduction may be applied during the design, construction and demolition phases of a building's life-cycle, it is in the O&M phase that green practices such as recycling and air quality enhancement take place. O&M staff should aim to establish best practices in energy efficiency, resource conservation, ecologically sensitive products and other sustainable practices. Education of building operators and occupants is key to effective implementation of sustainable strategies in O&M services. [50]

Waste reduction Edit

Green architecture also seeks to reduce waste of energy, water and materials used during construction. For example, in California nearly 60% of the state's waste comes from commercial buildings [51] During the construction phase, one goal should be to reduce the amount of material going to landfills. Well-designed buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well, by providing on-site solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills.

To reduce the amount of wood that goes to landfill, Neutral Alliance (a coalition of government, NGOs and the forest industry) created the website dontwastewood.com. The site includes a variety of resources for regulators, municipalities, developers, contractors, owner/operators and individuals/homeowners looking for information on wood recycling.

When buildings reach the end of their useful life, they are typically demolished and hauled to landfills. Deconstruction is a method of harvesting what is commonly considered "waste" and reclaiming it into useful building material. [52] Extending the useful life of a structure also reduces waste – building materials such as wood that are light and easy to work with make renovations easier. [53]

To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment plants, several options exist. "Greywater", wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing machines, can be used for subsurface irrigation, or if treated, for non-potable purposes, e.g., to flush toilets and wash cars. Rainwater collectors are used for similar purposes.

Centralized wastewater treatment systems can be costly and use a lot of energy. An alternative to this process is converting waste and wastewater into fertilizer, which avoids these costs and shows other benefits. By collecting human waste at the source and running it to a semi-centralized biogas plant with other biological waste, liquid fertilizer can be produced. This concept was demonstrated by a settlement in Lubeck Germany in the late 1990s. Practices like these provide soil with organic nutrients and create carbon sinks that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, offsetting greenhouse gas emission. Producing artificial fertilizer is also more costly in energy than this process. [54]

Reduce impact onto electricity network Edit

Electricity networks are built based on peak demand (another name is peak load). Peak demand is measured in the units of watts (W). It shows how fast electrical energy is consumed. Residential electricity is often charged on electrical energy (kilowatt hour, kWh). Green buildings or sustainable buildings are often capable of saving electrical energy but not necessarily reducing peak demand.

When sustainable building features are designed, constructed and operated efficiently, peak demand can be reduced so that there is less desire for electricity network expansion and there is less impact onto carbon emission and climate change. [55] These sustainable features can be good orientation, sufficient indoor thermal mass, good insulation, photovoltaic panels, thermal or electrical energy storage systems, smart building (home) energy management systems. [56]

The most criticized issue about constructing environmentally friendly buildings is the price. Photovoltaics, new appliances, and modern technologies tend to cost more money. Most green buildings cost a premium of <2%, but yield 10 times as much over the entire life of the building. [57] In regards to the financial benefits of green building, “Over 20 years, the financial payback typically exceeds the additional cost of greening by a factor of 4-6 times. And broader benefits, such as reductions in greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutants have large positive impacts on surrounding communities and on the planet.” [58] The stigma is between the knowledge of up-front cost [59] vs. life-cycle cost. The savings in money come from more efficient use of utilities which result in decreased energy bills. It is projected that different sectors could save $130 billion on energy bills. [60] Also, higher worker or student productivity can be factored into savings and cost deductions.

Numerous studies have shown the measurable benefit of green building initiatives on worker productivity. In general it has been found that, "there is a direct correlation between increased productivity and employees who love being in their work space.” [61] Specifically, worker productivity can be significantly impacted by certain aspects of green building design such as improved lighting, reduction of pollutants, advanced ventilation systems and the use of non-toxic building materials. [62] In “The Business Case for Green Building”, the U.S. Green Building Council gives another specific example of how commercial energy retrofits increase worker health and thus productivity, “People in the U.S. spend about 90% of their time indoors. EPA studies indicate indoor levels of pollutants may be up to ten times higher than outdoor levels. LEED-certified buildings are designed to have healthier, cleaner indoor environmental quality, which means health benefits for occupants." [63]

Studies have shown over a 20-year life period, some green buildings have yielded $53 to $71 per square foot back on investment. [64] Confirming the rentability of green building investments, further studies of the commercial real estate market have found that LEED and Energy Star certified buildings achieve significantly higher rents, sale prices and occupancy rates as well as lower capitalization rates potentially reflecting lower investment risk. [65] [66] [67]

As a result of the increased interest in green building concepts and practices, a number of organizations have developed standards, codes and rating systems for use by government regulators, building professionals and consumers. In some cases, codes are written so local governments can adopt them as bylaws to reduce the local environmental impact of buildings.

Green building rating systems such as BREEAM (United Kingdom), LEED (United States and Canada), DGNB (Germany), CASBEE (Japan), and VERDE GBCe (Spain), GRIHA (India) help consumers determine a structure’s level of environmental performance. They award credits for optional building features that support green design in categories such as location and maintenance of building site, conservation of water, energy, and building materials, and occupant comfort and health. The number of credits generally determines the level of achievement. [68]

Green building codes and standards, such as the International Code Council’s draft International Green Construction Code, [69] are sets of rules created by standards development organizations that establish minimum requirements for elements of green building such as materials or heating and cooling.

Some of the major building environmental assessment tools currently in use include:

In the beginning of the 21st century, attempts were made to implement the principles of green building not only to single buildings but also to neighborhoods and villages. The intention is to create zero energy neighborhoods and villages, meaning that they will create by themselves all the needed energy. They will also reuse waste, implement sustainable transportation, produce their own food. [70] [71]

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of such reports. The IPCC was established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects and options for adaptation and mitigation. [72]

UNEP and Climate change

United Nations Environment Program UNEP works to facilitate the transition to low-carbon societies, support climate proofing efforts, improve understanding of climate change science, and raise public awareness about this global challenge.

The Greenhouse Gas Indicator: UNEP Guidelines for Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Businesses and Non-Commercial Organizations

Agenda 21 is a programme run by the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development. It is a comprehensive blueprint of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the UN, governments, and major groups in every area in which humans impact on the environment. The number 21 refers to the 21st century.

The International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC) Project Sustainability Management Guidelines were created in order to assist project engineers and other stakeholders in setting sustainable development goals for their projects that are recognized and accepted by as being in the interests of society as a whole. The process is also intended to allow the alignment of project goals with local conditions and priorities and to assist those involved in managing projects to measure and verify their progress.

The Project Sustainability Management Guidelines are structured with Themes and Sub-Themes under the three main sustainability headings of Social, Environmental and Economic. For each individual Sub-Theme a core project indicator is defined along with guidance as to the relevance of that issue in the context of an individual project.

The Sustainability Reporting Framework provides guidance for organizations to use as the basis for disclosure about their sustainability performance, and also provides stakeholders a universally applicable, comparable framework in which to understand disclosed information.

The Reporting Framework contains the core product of the Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, as well as Protocols and Sector Supplements. The Guidelines are used as the basis for all reporting. They are the foundation upon which all other reporting guidance is based, and outline core content for reporting that is broadly relevant to all organizations regardless of size, sector, or location. The Guidelines contain principles and guidance as well as standard disclosures – including indicators – to outline a disclosure framework that organizations can voluntarily, flexibly, and incrementally, adopt.

Protocols underpin each indicator in the Guidelines and include definitions for key terms in the indicator, compilation methodologies, intended scope of the indicator, and other technical references.

Sector Supplements respond to the limits of a one-size-fits-all approach. Sector Supplements complement the use of the core Guidelines by capturing the unique set of sustainability issues faced by different sectors such as mining, automotive, banking, public agencies and others.

The IPD Environment Code was launched in February 2008. The Code is intended as a good practice global standard for measuring the environmental performance of corporate buildings. Its aim is to accurately measure and manage the environmental impacts of corporate buildings and enable property executives to generate high quality, comparable performance information about their buildings anywhere in the world. The Code covers a wide range of building types (from offices to airports) and aims to inform and support the following

  • Creating an environmental strategy
  • Inputting to real estate strategy
  • Communicating a commitment to environmental improvement
  • Creating performance targets
  • Environmental improvement plans
  • Performance assessment and measurement
  • Life cycle assessments
  • Acquisition and disposal of buildings
  • Supplier management
  • Information systems and data population
  • Compliance with regulations
  • Team and personal objectives

IPD estimate that it will take approximately three years to gather significant data to develop a robust set of baseline data that could be used across a typical corporate estate.

ISO/TS 21931:2006, Sustainability in building construction—Framework for methods of assessment for environmental performance of construction works—Part 1: Buildings, is intended to provide a general framework for improving the quality and comparability of methods for assessing the environmental performance of buildings. It identifies and describes issues to be taken into account when using methods for the assessment of environmental performance for new or existing building properties in the design, construction, operation, refurbishment and deconstruction stages. It is not an assessment system in itself but is intended be used in conjunction with, and following the principles set out in, the ISO 14000 series of standards.


When to Cite a Source

Include a citation whenever you can. If you are not sure whether or not to cite a source, cite it. You should reference and cite whenever you:

  • Quote directly from a source.
  • Summarize or paraphrase another writer’s ideas, concepts or opinions.
  • Anywhere you find data, facts and information used in your paper.
  • Images, visuals, graphs and charts you use in your work.

When Not to Cite a Source

You do not have to cite your source if the information you use is common knowledge. For example, the first African American President of the U.S. is Barack Obama however, if you aren’t sure if it is common knowledge or not, go ahead and cite it, just to be safe.


Annual Review of Vision Science

2020 Release of Journal Citation Reports

The 2020 Edition of the Journal Citation Reports® (JCR) published by Clarivate Analytics provides a combination of impact and influence metrics from 2019 Web of Science source data. This measure provides a ratio of citations to a journal in a given year to the citable items in the prior two years.

Download Annual Reviews 2020 Edition JCR Rankings in Excel format.

Annual Review of: Rank Category Name Ranked Journals in Category Impact Factor Cited Half-Life Immediacy Index
Analytical Chemistry 6 Chemistry, Analytical 86 7.023 7.1 2.042
Analytical Chemistry3Spectroscopy427.0237.12.042
Animal Biosciences2Zoology1686.0914.13.125
Animal Biosciences17Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology1566.0914.13.125
Animal Biosciences1Agriculture, Dairy, and Animal Sciences636.0914.13.125
Animal Biosciences2Veterinary Science1426.0914.13.125
Anthropology6Anthropology903.17515.60.240
Astronomy and Astrophysics1Astronomy and Astrophysics6832.96310.85.133
Biochemistry3Biochemistry and Molecular Biology29725.78712.34.933
Biomedical Engineering2Biomedical Engineering8715.5419.01.524
Biophysics3Biophysics7111.6856.63.130
Cancer Biology53Oncology2445.4132.02.826
Cell and Developmental Biology13Cell Biology19514.66710.50.552
Cell and Developmental Biology1Developmental Biology4114.66710.50.552
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering1Chemistry, Applied719.5615.60.941
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering5Engineering, Chemical1439.5615.60.941
Clinical Psychology1Psychology, Clinical (Social Sciences)13113.6927.93.304
Clinical Psychology4Psychology (Science)7713.6927.93.304
Condensed Matter Physics6Physics, Condensed Matter6914.8334.97.273
Criminology1Criminology & Penology696.3481.40.955
Earth and Planetary Sciences4Geosciences, Multidisciplinary2009.08914.22.727
Earth and Planetary Sciences5Astronomy and Astrophysics689.08914.22.727
Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics2Evolutionary Biology5014.04117.40.440
Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics2Ecology16814.04117.40.440
Economics39Economics3713.5916.40.686
Entomology1Entomology10113.79614.34.762
Environment and Resources5Environmental Studies (Social Science)1238.0659.60.563
Environment and Resources14Environmental Sciences (Science)2658.0659.60.563
Financial Economics36Business, Finance1082.0577.00.167
Financial Economics107Economics3712.0577.00.167
Fluid Mechanics1Physics, Fluids and Plasmas3416.30615.49.190
Fluid Mechanics1Mechanics13616.30615.49.190
Food Science and Technology3Food Science & Technology1398.9605.22.615
Genetics5Genetics & Heredity17711.14610.80.500
Genomics and Human Genetics15Genetics & Heredity1777.2439.10.955
Immunology4Immunology15819.90010.75.875
Law and Social Science18Law1542.5887.70.233
Law and Social Science20Sociology1502.5887.70.233
Linguistics23Linguistics1872.0263.31.000
Marine Science2Geochemistry & Geophysics8516.3596.67.050
Marine Science1Marine & Freshwater Biology10616.3596.67.050
Marine Science1Oceanography6616.3596.67.050
Materials Research19Materials Science, Multidisciplinary31412.53110.62.267
Medicine6Medicine, Research & Experimental1389.7168.63.829
Microbiology9Microbiology13511.00013.70.967
Neuroscience9Neurosciences27112.54713.62.130
Nuclear and Particle Science2Physics, Nuclear198.7789.81.000
Nuclear and Particle Science3Physics, Particles and Fields298.7789.81.000
Nutrition2Nutrition & Dietetics8910.89714.20.714
Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior2Psychology, Applied8410.9234.41.222
Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior2Management22610.9234.41.222
Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease1Pathology7816.7507.26.500
Pharmacology and Toxicology1Toxicology9211.25011.45.793
Pharmacology and Toxicology5Pharmacology & Pharmacy27011.25011.45.793
Physical Chemistry19Chemistry, Physical15910.63812.13.667
Physiology2Physiology8119.55611.14.769
Phytopathology4Plant Sciences23412.62312.70.478
Plant Biology1Plant Sciences23419.54013.04.586
Political Science8Political Science1804.00011.30.750
Psychology2Psychology (Science)7718.15612.36.367
Psychology3Psychology, Multidisciplinary (Social Science)13818.15612.36.367
Public Health2Public, Environmental & Occup. Health (Social Science)17016.4639.53.880
Public Health3Public, Environmental & Occup. Health (Science)19316.4639.53.880
Resource Economics70Economics3712.7455.80.167
Resource Economics48Environmental Studies (Social Science)1162.7455.80.167
Resource Economics4Agricultural Economics and Policy (Science)212.7455.80.167
Sociology 1Sociology1506.40017.70.767
Statistics and Its Application4Mathematics, Interdisciplinary Applications1065.0953.21.350
Statistics and Its Application2Statistics and Probability1245.0953.21.350
Virology2Virology378.0213.61.172
Vision Science34Neurosciences2715.8973.40.391
Vision Science5Ophthalmology605.8973.40.391

AIMS AND SCOPE OF JOURNAL: The Annual Review of Vision Science reviews progress in the visual sciences, a cross-cutting set of disciplines which intersect psychology, neuroscience, computer science, cell biology and genetics, and clinical medicine. The journal covers a broad range of topics and techniques, including optics, retina, central visual processing, visual perception, eye movements, visual development, vision models, computer vision, and the mechanisms of visual disease, dysfunction, and sight restoration. The study of vision is central to progress in many areas of science, and this new journal will explore and expose the connections that link it to biology, behavior, computation, engineering, and medicine.


6.6: Conclusion and Resources - Biology

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Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication.

The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.


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