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4.1: Formative Questions - Biology

4.1: Formative Questions - Biology



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4.1: Formative Questions

4.1: Formative Questions - Biology

Chemistry
and Living Systems

Cell Structure
and Function

Digestive and Other Body Systems

Circulation and Respiration

Students should complete Chapter 4 Pretest and Chapter 4 Study Guide before starting the lesson cycle.

The Study Guide prepares students for chapter content by summarizing main points and vocabulary. Student should read the Study Guide aloud.

Engage

Connect to Prior Knowledge: Microscopes

Write the following questions on the board and have students construct written responses to them upon entering the classroom. Encourage volunteers to share their answers.

  1. Why are microscopes important to scientists?
  2. Suppose there were no microscopes. Name one currently accepted scientific fact that may still be unknown.

cell theory – a theory that explains the relationship between cells and living things

cell membrane – a separating barrier that controls movement of materials into and out of the cell

organelle – a structure inside of a cell that helps it perform its function

cytoplasm – a fluid mixture that contains the organelles and the compounds the cell needs

prokaryotic cells – cells that do not have a nucleus or membrane-covered organelles

eukaryotic cells – cells that have a nucleus and membrane-covered organelles

The word cytoplasm is formed from the union of a prefix, cyto – which means “hollow vessel” and a suffix, – plasm which means “substance or material that forms.”

  1. When students hear the word cell what comes to mind? It is likely that their first thoughts have less to do with biology and more to do with a structure such as a jail cell or some other small, simple room. Have students consider the simplicity of a jail cell and compare it to a hollow vessel. Is there any similarity between these two structures? How are they similar?
  2. Have students apply the literal meanings of cyto – and – plasm to define cytoplasm in their own words. How is a cell within living organisms like a hollow vessel? How are they different?
  3. Ask students if they might want to pursue a career as a cytologist. Using what they know about the meaning of the prefix cyto –, what do they think the job description might include? Note: It may be necessary to remind students that the suffix - ology means the “study of.” (A cytologist is a person who studies the structure and function of cells.)

Explore

The focus of this investigation is to familiarize students with general characteristics of cells and how to prepare and view a microscope slide.

  1. Allow one class period to complete the investigation.
  2. Students work in groups of three to five.
  3. Prepare dropper bottles of iodine and containers of sliced onion in advance.
  4. Have students wear gloves, goggles, and an apron when preparing slides.
  5. Print answer sheets or write notes & answers in notebooks.

Microscope

Slides

Coverslips

Tweezers

Piece of onion

Iodine stain

Safety goggles and lab apron

Investigation 4.1: Examining Onion Tissue

Hold up an onion before students.

What are some characteristics of this onion?

Students make qualitative observations about the onion. For example, students may describe the shape or color of the onion. Divide students into their lab groups. Provide each group with a container of onion pieces.

Look at the onion pieces in your container. How are these pieces different in appearance from the whole onion you viewed?

Students offer comparisons of the onion pieces to the whole, such as differences in texture or color. Accept all reasonable responses.

Let’s examine the onion in another way. Onions have many layers. Suppose you peel off a layer of onion and view it under a microscope. What do you think you will see?

Gradually peel away thinner layers of onion. Then use tweezers to peel away a layer that is thin enough to examine under the microscope. Some practice is needed to get a layer that is thin enough to view. Encourage students to make predictions about what the onion tissue will look like when viewed under the microscope.

Prepare a slide in order to view the tissue under the microscope. Place a drop of water on the slide. Use tweezers to remove a thin piece of onion tissue from the inside of a small piece of onion. Gently lower the onion tissue onto the slide. Be careful to not to crease the skin. Use the tweezers to place the coverslip over the onion skin.

Tell students to place the coverslip over the onion skin slowly in order to avoid trapping air bubbles between the coverslip and the slide.

Draw a picture to describe what you see.

Students prepare an unstained slide of the onion tissue. Students should be able to see cells in orderly patterns, which may resemble white floor tiles or a brick wall. They may even be able to detect some motion in the cytoplasm. Doing this step before adding a stain gives students practice in preparing a slide and obtaining a thin layer of onion tissue. It also helps students to see why staining the tissue enhances viewing the components of the cell.

1. Preparing a slide of onion tissue

Prepare another slide of onion tissue. This time, you will apply a stain. The stain that you will use is iodine. Be sure that you use only one drop of the iodine. Use the pictures shown in part one of your investigation handout as a guide.

Inform students to be cautious as iodine can stain skin and clothing. It may also be harmful if ingested. Students prepare the slide of onion tissue with stain. Walk around and observe as students prepare the slides. Assist students as needed. Remind students to lower the coverslip slowly in order to reduce the probability of trapping air bubbles.

Take a moment to think about the slides you have prepared. Then answer each question in part two of the investigation.

Discuss students’ answers to each question. Walk around and check students’ sketches of what they predict they will see when viewing the stained onion tissue. Talk about the levels of organization of living organisms. This is a good time to revisit the vocabulary terms, cell, tissue, and organ.

3. Observing onion tissue under a microscope

Now it is time to view the stained onion tissue. What should you do first?

Students ensure that the stage is lowered to its lowest point.

Good answer. Check your objectives. Are you at low power? Place your slide on the stage and secure it with the stage clips.

Students set up the microscope and prepare to view the sample under low power.

View the onion tissue at low, medium, and high power. Make a detailed sketch of what you see at each magnification. Also record any other observations beneath each sketch.

Students view the slide at each magnification and record what they observe. Remind students to look at the microscope from the side when changing objectives to ensure that the slide is not hit, shifted, or damaged. Also, remind students not to use the coarse adjustment knob when viewing the slide at high power as this could also damage the slide.

4. Thinking about what you observed

Examine each of your sketches closely. Do you notice any trends in what you observed as the power was changed?

Students should note that they were able to see more detail of the onion tissue as the power was increased. Encourage students to discuss what they saw.

Use your observations to help you answer each of the questions in part four.

Discuss the answers to each question with the class. Review the visible organelles with the students and talk about their characteristics. As a result of completing this investigation, many students often question why onions make the eyes water. Use the information provided in Why Onions Make You Cry to explain the reasoning to your students.

Investigation 4.1: Data and Answers

1. Preparing a slide of onion tissue

  1. Since the onion tissue is almost transparent, the iodine stain gives it some color so we can see it under the microscope.
  2. We will probably see the cells of the onion tissue.
  3. A tissue is a group of cells that perform a particular function. The next level of organization above tissues is organ. The level below tissues is cell.

3. Observing onion tissue under a microscope

4. Thinking about what you observed

  1. Onion tissue is made of cells.
  2. Answers will vary.
  3. There are dividing structures that clearly define the boundary between each cell. Each cell has a boundary structure and a nucleus, and they are rectangular.
  4. Yes, they do agree. The small cells do look like small rooms arranged in a large office building or hotel with long rows of similarly shaped rooms.
  5. I can identify the cell membrane, vacuole, nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell wall.

Explain

Assign the Lesson 4.1 Reading: What are Cells? Use the Lesson 4.1 Presentation Slides as a guide to presenting and discussing the content in the reading.

Guided Discussion: Comparing Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Note: Focus students’ attention on the Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell slides and Figure 4.5 in the lesson as you lead this discussion.

Students often question how a prokaryotic cell is able to function without a nucleus. The answer lies in how students differentiate prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Although prokaryotic cells have no nucleus, they do have DNA. Prokaryotic DNA is much simpler than DNA found in eukaryotes. For example, prokaryotes usually have one large, round DNA molecule that has none of the proteins common to eukaryotic DNA. However, like eukaryotes, prokaryotes have ribosomes for protein synthesis and genes that function in heredity.

Prokaryotes lack membrane-covered organelles, such as vacuoles, lysosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. They also have no mitochondria but, they are able to use the inner surface of the cell membrane to make ATP. Many prokaryotes also have a cell wall. Unlike plant cell walls which are made of cellulose, prokaryote cell walls get their shape and strength from peptidoglycan (or murein), a molecule made of amino acids and sugars. Prokaryotes have no microtubules. Therefore, the structure of a prokaryotic flagellum is very different from that of eukaryotes. Prokaryotes move as the flagellum rotates. Eukaryotes are propelled by the whip-like motion of their flagella.

Create a list of study questions for the lesson. Have students work in pairs to answer the questions without using the text or other resources first. Then have pairs of students merge to discuss the questions they were unable to answer. Close the activity by having one group lead a whole class discussion for each question. Fill in any details needed to arrive at a complete response.

Elaborate

Class Time: 30 minutes for discussion and presentations

Students are introduced to specialized cells in Lesson 4.1. Instruct small groups of students to study one specialized cell in the human body. Begin by having students generate a list of specialized cells. It may be necessary to prompt students if they are unable to think of examples on their own. An alternative is to place strips of paper with the names of different cells in a container, and then have a member of each group choose one. Be sure to select specialized that cells that represent various systems within the human body. Then have students use the Internet or other resources to complete these tasks.

  1. Draw the cell or locate a high quality image of it.
  2. Label different organelles within the cell. If students are able to find a good image, it may already be labeled.
  3. Describe the structure and function of the cell. Students’ responses should focus on how the structure of the cell is related to its function.
  4. Discuss how the specialized cell exhibits the characteristics of living things. For example, name one way the cell responds to its environment.
  5. Compare the structure and function of your cell to another group’s cell. Discuss one similarity and one difference.

Use students’ work to create a catalog of cells in a three-ring binder. Revisit the material in the binder when students begin to study specific body systems. ELLs and struggling readers will benefit from the visuals and simpler, peer-generated descriptions.

Evaluate

Assign the Check Your Understanding as a formative assessment for this lesson.

Assign the Graphic Organizer as a formative assessment for this lesson. Copy only the first page or two for your students. The last page is a filled-in answer key for scoring.

After completing the chapter, assign Chapter 4 Review as a summative assessment.


25.6.2 – Summative Assessment

Summative assessments are provided at end of a unit to determine how much students have learned. Summative assessments provide information for determining grades and giving students feedback on their performance. Summative assessments may come in the form of papers, homework problems, lab reports (3.4.1), projects (22.3, 23.1-4), quizzes, and tests, and can include objective or subjective tasks. Objective tasks have clear right and wrong answers, examples of which include mathematical solutions, multiple choice, true/false, and fill in the blank questions. Subjective tasks are more open-ended, do not have obvious right and wrong answers, and must be evaluated by professionals who truly understand the material. Criterion-referenced assessments are based on content-based expectations, while norm-referenced assessments compare students to others who have taken the same test. Students pass criterion-referenced tests by obtaining a score in excess of a predetermined cutscore, while they pass norm-referenced tests by performing better than a given percentage of others who took the same test.


3.4.1.3 Tissue fluid exam questions | A Level Biology AQA

A Level Biology Teacher & online tutor, Biomedical Science graduate and recent A* student. Providing concise, bullet-point revision notes based on mark schemes designed to help students understand exactly what the examiners are looking for. For more resources and exam technique classes, visit my website biologywitholivia.co.uk

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  • 16 pages of exam questions and mark schemes
  • Topic: 3.4.1 mass transport in animals - tissue fluid and capillaries
  • Exam questions taken from old biology and human biology past papers, AQA
  • Could be used as an activity in class, given as homework, or for revision

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Cells planning 1.1

Planning sheet for Introduction to Cells 1.1

Understanding(s)

  • According to cell theory, living organisms are composed of cells.
  • Organisms consisting of only one cell carry out all functions of life in that cell.

Essential Question(s)

  • Are all living things made of cells?
  • Do cells share the same structure?
  • How does 'differentiation' lead to differences in structure?
  • What are the main processes of life which happen in cells?
  • What sort of new properties appear when many cells live collaboratively in multicellular organisms?
  • What are the special properties of stem cells?
  • How can we use this knowledge of cells, to exploit stem cells for medical treatments?

ToK / NOS / IM

When we use microscopes they extend our natural vision but can be believe what we see?

Ethics and the use of stem cells harvested from embryos, umbilical cords and adults.

How science theories can be supported by evidence and how evidence can be used to falsify them, leading to modifications and improvements in the theory.

How scientists from different countries have shared ideas in the development of theories such as cell theory, and germ theory.

Skills students will have

  • Applying cell theory to striated muscle, giant algae, fungal hyphae.
  • Identifying the characteristics of living things ("functions" - Mr H. Gren) Paramecium and Chlorella.
  • Application: Use of stem cells to treat Stargardt&rsquos disease and one other condition.

From the Genetics SL topic there is this activity:

  • Completion of worksheets included in the following tasks will give evidence of understanding.
    • Basic concept of cell theory
    • Cell differentiation
    • Stems cells ethics and use.
    • Skill of using a microscope
    • Drawing cells and estimating their size
    • SA : Volume ratios and cell size

    Using Microscopy to investigate cell theory

    Time: 1h A practical Biology lesson that will illustrate the discovery of cells in the history of Biology and teach students how to use microscopes to measure the cell sizes.

    Measuring size in Biology

    Time: 0.5h How many µm make a mm? This activity gives students clear examples of biological objects to cover sizes from 1mm to 1nm. Students watch a short video clip, investigate a visual biological data base using a slider and make a display which illustrate the huge range of sizes between tiny fleas and the miniscule molecules.

    Cell size calculation activities

    Time: 1h Student activities to illustrate the sizes of different cell components and to show students how to calculate cell sizes from electron micrographs. The lesson incorporates an online magnification animation and a downloadable worksheet.

    Surface area to volume ratio practical

    Time: 1h A practical laboratory in which students can visualise diffusion into blocks of different sizes. This will teach students some essential skills for internal assessment, and illustrate the concept of surface area to volume ratio.

    Measuring skills, SI units and Uncertainties in Biology

    Time: 1h There are some important new skills to learn in IB Biology when it comes to the simple skill of measuring. Professional biologists and IB students are expected to know how precise their measurements are.

    This series of short experiments illustrates SI units and the skills a student needs to achieve high grades in data collection and processing.

    Being Multicellula r

    Time: 1h Using video clips this activity explores differentiation, stem cells and emergent properties and gives students an introduction to the concepts together with concrete examples to use in IB examinations.

    Critical thinking about stem cells

    Time: 1-2hrs This lesson plan contains a range of ides for activities to encourage students to engage with the ethical issues which surround the use of stem cells and therapeutic cloning. Include Stargardt&rsquos disease.

    What worked well (List the content, assessment, planning that were successful)

    What didn't work well (Notes, suggestions, or considerations for the future teaching of this unit)


    COURSE OUTLINE: BS4010

    This course aims to highlight how the complexity of biological systems, combined with traditional engineering approaches, results in the emergence of new design principles for synthetic biology. It will also introduce many exciting examples of practical applications of synthetic biology, including various state-of-the-art experimental and computational tools for synthetic biology, and an awareness of how traditional engineering knowledge benefits industrial application.

    Intended Learning Outcomes

    Upon successfully completing this course, you should be able to:

    1. Analyse logic gates to determine output
    2. Design simple genetic circuits for synthetic biology applications
    3. Apply principles of synthetic biology to industrial applications (e.g. degrading biomass, water treatment)
    4. Apply principles of synthetic biology to suggest pathways to rewire value-added biological materials

    Course Content

    Introduction to synthetic biology

    New tools for DNA synthesis and protein engineering as an enabling tool

    Pathway engineering as an enbling tool from biological paths to circuit design

    Theoretical considerations for reprogramming multicellular systems sand computaitonal protein design

    Computational strain design, computer-aided design of synthetic biological constructs

    Design and application of synthetic biology devices for therapy, drug discovery and development

    Synthetic biology biofuel production

    Bioremediation and biomaterials

    Tools for genome sythesis

    Synthetic microbial consortia and their applications

    Assessment

    Component Course ILOs tested SBS Graduate Attributes tested Weighting Team / Individual Assessment Rubrics
    Continuous Assessment
    Assignment 1, 2, 3, 4 1. a, b, c, d
    2. a, c, e, f
    3. b, c, e, g
    5. a, c, e
    6. c
    7. a, c
    30 individual See Appendix for rubric
    Tutorials
    Presentation 1, 2, 3, 4 1. a, b, c, d
    2. a, c, e, f
    3. b, c, e, g
    5. a, b, c
    6. c
    7. a, c
    20 team See Appendix for rubric
    Examination (2 hours)
    Multiple Choice Questions 1, 2, 3, 4 1. a, b, c, d
    2. a, e
    3. a, b, c, e, g
    5. c, e
    7. a
    30 individual
    Short Answer Questions 1, 2, 3, 4 1. a, b, c, d
    2. a, c
    3. b, c, e, g
    5. c, e
    7. a
    20 individual See Appendix for rubric
    Total 100%

    These are the relevant SBS Graduate Attributes.

    1. Recognize the relationship and complexity between structure and function of all forms of life, resulting from an academically rigorous in-depth understanding of biological concepts

    a. Possess a conceptual framework that identifies the relationships between the major domains in the field of biology.

    b. Explain the relationship between structure and function of all forms of life at the molecular level

    c. Explain the relationship between structure and function of all forms of life at the cellular level

    d. Explain the relationship between structure and function of all forms of life at the organism level

    2. Critically evaluate and analyze biological information by applying the knowledge, scientific methods and technical skills associated with the discipline

    a. Identify the assumptions behind scientific problems and issues

    c. Create abstract models of data

    e. Analyze the validity of qualitative and quantitative scientific data

    f. Evaluate results in primary biological literature

    3. Develop and communicate biological ideas and concepts relevant in everyday life for the benefit of society

    a. Simplify and explain scientific concepts and results of experiments to a non-biologist (avoiding jargon)

    b. Display and explain scientific results clearly and persuasively to peers both verbally and in writing (includes the ability to graph data appropriately and accurately).

    c. Demonstrate an understanding of the recursive nature of science, where new results continually modify previous knowledge

    e. Discuss current critical questions in the field of biology

    g. Demonstrate an understanding of the history of ideas and development of the major fields of biology

    5. Develop communication, creative and critical thinking skills for life-long learning

    a. Learn independently and then share that knowledge with others

    b. Learn collaboratively and be willing to share expertise with peers

    c. Demonstrate critical thinking skills such as analysis, discrimination, logical reasoning, prediction and transforming knowledge

    e. Demonstrate good observation skills and a curiosity about the world

    6. Develop codes of social responsibility and scientific ethics, particularly in relation to biological advancement and applications

    c. Respect regulations involving plagiarism and copyright

    7. Demonstrate information literacy and technological fluency

    a. Locate and evaluate information needed to make decisions, solve problems, design experiments, and understand scientific data

    c. Evaluate and use biological databases (literature and public datasets)

    Formative Feedback

    In Assignment 1 (group presentation), you will be asked to work in a team, to develop and present a good quality presentation. Following your presentation, you will receive feedback. This will help you achieve SBS learning outcomes 3(a) and 3(b).

    In Assignment 2 (short essay), you will be asked to write in a clear, succinct way and make proper citations. You will receive the results of this assignment once it is marked. This also helps you to achieve SBS learning outcomes 3(a) and 3(b).

    Learning and Teaching Approach

    Lectures will present the principle of synthetic biology and the enabling tools, describe the tools in details and interpret the scientific basis behind them (This helps you to achieve learning outcomes #1 & #2).

    Lectures will describe and explain various applications of synthetic biology, the principle and the design, in particular how to assemble and apply these technologies and methods for industrial applications in a synthetic biology manner (learning outcomes 3&4).

    Lectures will include a Group presentation session, this would foster your interest in synthetic biology and encourage your creative thinking and team work, this enhancing outcomes #1-4.

    Various types of activities are included in the tutorials, for a better understanding of our course as well as to better achieve the outcomes. Tutorials with an emphasis on interesting and challenging case studies will explain the principle and the progressive development so that you could change the design for your own purposes (#learning outcome 1&2).

    At the later stage of tutorials, question Q&A, group presentation will be employed so that you could think about the course deeply, as well as encourage engaging in the course, thereby facilitating outcomes 1-4.

    Reading and References

    a. Zhao H., Synthetic Biology: Tools and Applications, Academic Press, 2013
    b. Schmidt M., Synthetic Biology: Industrial and Environmental Applications, Wiley-Blackwell Press, 2012
    C. Glieder A., et al., Synthetic Biology, Springer Press, 2015

    Course Policies and Student Responsibilities

    You are required to complete all assessments in line with the requirements. You are expected to follow up with the course notes, and make a proper response to the relevant course announcements. You are expected to make group presentation with input from every individual, and submit individual short essay in the light of NTU integrity and regulations, i.e. proper citations and no plagiarism.

    Academic Integrity

    Good academic work depends on honesty and ethical behaviour. The quality of your work as a student relies on adhering to the principles of academic integrity and to the NTU Honour Code, a set of values shared by the whole university community. Truth, Trust and Justice are at the core of NTU’s shared values.

    As a student, it is important that you recognize your responsibilities in understanding and applying the principles of academic integrity in all the work you do at NTU. Not knowing what is involved in maintaining academic integrity does not excuse academic dishonesty. You need to actively equip yourself with strategies to avoid all forms of academic dishonesty, including plagiarism, academic fraud, collusion and cheating. If you are uncertain of the definitions of any of these terms, you should go to the Academic Integrity website for more information. Consult your instructor(s) if you need any clarification about the requirements of academic integrity in the course.

    Course Instructors

    Planned Weekly Schedule

    Introduction to synthetic biology

    New tools for DNA synthesis and protein engineering as an enabling tool

    Pathway engineering as an enbling tool from biological paths to circuit design

    Theoretical considerations for reprogramming multicellular systems sand computaitonal protein design

    Computational strain design, computer-aided design of synthetic biological constructs

    Design and application of synthetic biology devices for therapy, drug discovery and development

    Synthetic biology biofuel production

    Bioremediation and biomaterials

    Tools for genome sythesis

    Synthetic microbial consortia and their applications

    Appendix 1: Assessment Rubrics

    Rubric for Continuous Assessment: Assignment (30%)

    Every individual student is required to write an independent essay relevant to synthetic biology, e.g. Comparative study of artificial enzymes: engineered protein enzyme and nanozyme. The essay will be graded as follows:

    1. Presentation (5 marks). A full story with a clear objective/purpose, and the organization is effective. The essay is well written, with proper citation, and no or little grammatical errors or typos.

    2. Content (15 marks). The content, information and evidence in the essay should be accurate. In particular, the claims and ideas should be elaborated, and the subject is of interest to synthetic biology, could be complementary to what we learned from the lecture and tutorial. The students are encouraged to explore those synthetic biology fields crucial to our Singapore, such as waster water treatment and water desalination.

    3. Thinking (5 marks). Independent thinking and creativity/originality are evident. Make a clear analysis and/or logic interpretation.

    4. Miscellaneous (5 marks): It should be with a proper length (no longer than 2000 words). Documents evidence appropriately, and you should submit a hardcopy before the deadline.

    Rubric for Tutorials: Presentation (20%)

    Assemble a small group to make a presentation relevant to Synthetic Biology. The grading for presentation is:

    1. Presentation content (this is the most important component): 8 marks
    2. Presentation logic flow and duration: 4 marks
    3. Presentation skill: 4 marks
    4. Team member engagement in presentation: 4 marks

    Rubric for Examination: Short Answer Questions (20%)

    You will be required to answer questions covering the application of biological concepts and principles to industrial applications in synthetic biology. Some questions will involve understanding the design of simple genetic circuits and relevant logic gates. Each question will be worth equal marks.

    Appendix 2: Intended Affective Outcomes

    As a result of this course, it is expected you will develop the following "big picture" attributes:

    Awareness of the possibilites of engineering approaches to biology

    Awareness of the need for standardisation in biological processes

    Awareness of integration of biological principles in the development of synthetic biology


    Module 1: Cells as the Basis of Life

    Commonly asked exam questions on Module 1 Cells as the Basis of Life are:

      • Identifying the structure and function of cell organelles
      • Explaining the function of enzymes under different environmental conditions
      • Explaining the movement of substances across cell membranes

      Question 1 (1 mark)

      Which of the following organelles in a eukaryote cell are correctly matched with their function?

      StructureFunction
      (A)Rough endoplasmic reticulumProtein synthesis
      (B)Smooth endoplasmic reticulumATP synthesis
      (C)MitochondriaNucleotide degradation
      (D)LysosomesLipid synthesis

      Question 2 (1 mark)

      Refer to the following diagram.

      Image by Jerome Walker – Own work, CC BY 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=915557

      What does the diagram depict?

      Question 3 (5 mark)

      Liver contains an enzyme called catalase. This enzyme acts on the substrate hydrogen peroxide to produce water and oxygen gas.

      Given the information above, design a first-hand investigation to determine the effect of temperature on enzyme activity.


      COURSE OUTLINE: BS4002

      This course aims to introduce current cell biology concepts and techniques such as cell imaging, image analysis, and biophysics. The course requires you to analyse cell biology research using critical thinking. This course will actively enhance your communication, presentation, and teamwork skills.

      Intended Learning Outcomes

      Upon successfully completing this course, you should be able to:

      1. Explain current issues in cell biology
      2. Explain current techniques in cell biology
      3. Analyse scientific literature pertaining to cell biology and draw conclusions
      4. Communicate with peers, public, and other scientists on biology related topics and research
      5. Present a scientific report

      Course Content

      The mechanisms of cell biology at a molecular level

      The techniques used to address problems in cell biology, e.g. cell imaging, image analysis, and biophysics

      How to extract and analyse key information in a research report

      Assessment

      Component Course ILOs tested SBS Graduate Attributes tested Weighting Team / Individual Assessment Rubrics
      Continuous Assessment
      Assignment 1, 2, 3, 4 1. a, b, c
      2. a, b, c, d, e, f, h
      3. a, b, c, d, e, f, g
      5. a, b, c, e
      7. a, c
      24 individual See Appendix for rubric
      Participation 1, 2, 3, 4 1. a, b, c
      2. a, e, f
      3. a, b, c, d, e, f, g
      5. b, c, d, e
      7. a, b, c
      23 individual See Appendix for rubric
      Technology-enhanced Learning
      Multiple Choice Questions 1, 2 1. a, b, c
      2. a, b, e, f
      5. a, c, d, e
      7. a, c, d
      16 individual See Appendix for rubric
      Tutorials
      Presentation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1. a, b, c
      2. a, b, e, f
      3. a, b, c, d, e, f, g
      5. a, b, c, d, e
      7. a, b, c
      37 both See Appendix for rubric
      Total 100%

      These are the relevant SBS Graduate Attributes.

      1. Recognize the relationship and complexity between structure and function of all forms of life, resulting from an academically rigorous in-depth understanding of biological concepts

      a. Possess a conceptual framework that identifies the relationships between the major domains in the field of biology.

      b. Explain the relationship between structure and function of all forms of life at the molecular level

      c. Explain the relationship between structure and function of all forms of life at the cellular level

      2. Critically evaluate and analyze biological information by applying the knowledge, scientific methods and technical skills associated with the discipline

      a. Identify the assumptions behind scientific problems and issues

      b. Create and evaluate hypotheses

      c. Create abstract models of data

      d. Design experiments relevant to authentic problems and their models

      e. Analyze the validity of qualitative and quantitative scientific data

      f. Evaluate results in primary biological literature

      h. Identify unintended results as opportunities for discovery

      3. Develop and communicate biological ideas and concepts relevant in everyday life for the benefit of society

      a. Simplify and explain scientific concepts and results of experiments to a non-biologist (avoiding jargon)

      b. Display and explain scientific results clearly and persuasively to peers both verbally and in writing (includes the ability to graph data appropriately and accurately).

      c. Demonstrate an understanding of the recursive nature of science, where new results continually modify previous knowledge

      d. Explain the role of peer review in science as a quality control mechanism

      e. Discuss current critical questions in the field of biology

      f. Demonstrate an understanding of the social and natural context of knowledge (role of science in society, influence of society on science)

      g. Demonstrate an understanding of the history of ideas and development of the major fields of biology

      5. Develop communication, creative and critical thinking skills for life-long learning

      a. Learn independently and then share that knowledge with others

      b. Learn collaboratively and be willing to share expertise with peers

      c. Demonstrate critical thinking skills such as analysis, discrimination, logical reasoning, prediction and transforming knowledge

      d. Question the assumptions, sources, and contexts of scientific investigation

      e. Demonstrate good observation skills and a curiosity about the world

      7. Demonstrate information literacy and technological fluency

      a. Locate and evaluate information needed to make decisions, solve problems, design experiments, and understand scientific data

      b. Work effectively with common technologies in biology

      c. Evaluate and use biological databases (literature and public datasets)

      d. Complete online learning independently

      Formative Feedback

      a. Feedback will be provided for each section of the presentation, regarding the research topics used for presentation and the presentation per se. This will help you to achieve Intended Learning Outcomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

      b. Feedback will be given on the student report. This helps you to achieve learning outcomes 1, 2, 3.

      Learning and Teaching Approach

      Flipped classroom will be introduced in this course. Presentation and discussion of topics in Cell Biology will be carried out during classroom sessions. You will be able to understand the general concepts and develop the skill to analyze cell biology research using critical thinking. This helps you to achieve learning outcomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

      Extended learning will be facilitated by online learning video and other materials. MCQ quizzes will be hosted online (Technology-Enabled Learning, TEL). You will be able to understand the general concepts and develop skills in analyzing cell biology research using critical thinking. This helps you to achieve learning outcomes 1, 2, 3.

      Current knowledge and techniques will be introduced in the lecture. This helps you to achieve learning outcomes 1, 2, 3.

      Reading and References

      I. Reference information and papers will be given using TEL online system.
      II. Essential Cell Biology, Fourth Edition, Bruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Karen Hopkin, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, Peter Walter, ISBN: 9780815344544 Garland Science - Taylor & Francis Group October 14, 2013
      III. Research articles will be provided for reading, preparation, and presentation.

      Course Policies and Student Responsibilities

      1. You will need to watch online learning materials and understand the principles and keypoints

      2. You will need to read the literature with another student as a pair to prepare a presentation, which includes the background, questions to be addressed, techniques used, conclusion, etc.

      3. You will need to prepare the questions for the presentation groups each week.

      4. You will need to participate the discussion of the presentation other group made.

      5. You will need to perform "peer evaluation" of other presenters.

      6. You will need to write a report to summary one section of this current cell biology course, including the topics, scientific questions, techniques used, and conclusions.

      7. You will need to finish an online MCQ quiz as a part of the CA.

      There is no final examination for this course.

      Academic Integrity

      Good academic work depends on honesty and ethical behaviour. The quality of your work as a student relies on adhering to the principles of academic integrity and to the NTU Honour Code, a set of values shared by the whole university community. Truth, Trust and Justice are at the core of NTU’s shared values.

      As a student, it is important that you recognize your responsibilities in understanding and applying the principles of academic integrity in all the work you do at NTU. Not knowing what is involved in maintaining academic integrity does not excuse academic dishonesty. You need to actively equip yourself with strategies to avoid all forms of academic dishonesty, including plagiarism, academic fraud, collusion and cheating. If you are uncertain of the definitions of any of these terms, you should go to the Academic Integrity website for more information. Consult your instructor(s) if you need any clarification about the requirements of academic integrity in the course.

      Course Instructors

      Planned Weekly Schedule

      Current View of Cell Biology

      Current View of Actin Cytoskeleton and the regulation of the cell division /Research paper discussion & presentation

      Current View of Actin Cytoskeleton and the regulation of the cell division /Research paper discussion & presentation

      online materials and presentation

      Research paper discussion & presentation

      online materials and presentation

      Current view of Actin Cytoskeleton and Advanced Cell Biology Imaging / Research paper discussion & presentation

      Current view of Actin Cytoskeleton and Advanced Cell Biology Imaging / Research paper discussion & presentation

      online materials and presentation

      Research paper discussion & presentation

      online materials and presentation

      Current view of Cytoskeletal Regulation in Neurons during Learning and Memory/ Research paper discussion & presentation

      Current view of Cytoskeletal Regulation in Neurons during Learning and Memory / Research paper discussion & presentation

      online materials and presentation

      Research paper discussion & presentation

      online materials and presentation

      Current view of the Membrane Trafficking/ Research paper discussion & presentation

      Current view of the Membrane Trafficking/ Research paper discussion & presentation

      online materials and presentation

      Research paper discussion & presentation

      online materials and presentation

      Appendix 1: Assessment Rubrics

      Rubric for Continuous Assessment: Assignment (24%)

      You will need to write an essay summarising the key points of a research article (which you will also need to present to the class).

      Word limit/Font/Font size/Formatting

      Introduces topic clearly and creatively

      Writing in a logical sequence

      Correct use of references

      Smooth Transitions between topics

      Introduction is well organized with appropriate amount of information and lays out the problem well/hypothesis

      Introduction contains accurate information

      Describe principle of experiments correctly

      Presentation of data in professional manner

      Integrate knowledge from other modules for data analysis

      Combines and evaluates existing knowledge and data to form new insights

      Evaluation of the technique used for the research work

      Discussion with high originality and good reasoning

      Rubric for Continuous Assessment: Participation (23%)

      Active participation is essential in this course for you to achieve maximum learning. After listening to your classmates' presentations, you will need to engage the speakers with insightful questions. You will also need to actively discuss issues that arise with your peers and the tutor.

      Rubric for Technology-enhanced Learning: Multiple Choice Questions (16%)

      MCQ questions will be hosted online for total four sections along this course, 4 marks for each section. MCQ will be opened to the student at a particular time window following each one of the four sections. The score will be computed automatically by online TEL interface in LAMS system.

      Rubric for Tutorials: Presentation (37%)

      You are required work with one partner to give a presentation of your summary of a journal article including the background, questions to be addressed, techniques used, and conclusions drawn.

      Total marks out of 85 will be scaled to 37%.

      Clarity of introduction (relevance logic the question behind the story)

      Demonstrates understanding of the methods

      Clarity in explanation of results

      Demonstrates understanding of the significance

      Discussion of the future questions

      Clear and appropriate amount of content per slide

      Coherent, concise, easy to follow

      Clearly summarized, memorable

      Good use of materials to make attractive presentation

      Humorous, relaxed, enthusiastic,

      Eye contact, presentation skill

      Appendix 2: Intended Affective Outcomes

      As a result of this course, it is expected you will develop the following "big picture" attributes:

      Appreciation of the value of scientific studies into cell biology

      Be aware of most recent and top-ranking techniques for cell biology research

      Appreciate the broader influence of scientific research to society and technology development


      Assessment

      Forms of assessment (EA and IA)

      Assessment is integral to the teaching and learning approaches. There are two forms of assessment-external (EA) and internal (IA). EA is assessed by the IB examiners, while IA is assessed by teachers and externally moderated by the IB.

      Types of assessment-Formative and Summative

      There are two types of assessment identified by the IB- Formative and Summative.
      Formative assessment is kind of a progress tracker for the students and the teachers highlighting on the solidity of foundation in the understanding and the applications of the skills.
      Summative assessment assesses the progression of the students’ understanding from known to unknown.


      Watch the video: Disease Multiple Choice Questions OCR A Level Biology (August 2022).