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Mites on ginger root

Mites on ginger root



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I was just looking at some mouldy ginger found in the fridge under the microscope and was horrified/delighted to find (what looked to be) mites growing in it. I have searched the web and can only find references to red spider mites which these are certainly not. They were clear white and under 40x zoom about less than a mm across - does anyone know what they could be? Furthermore, what are they feeding on (ginger root is only ~15% carbohydrates - is that enough?) and has a minimal (~1%) amount of protein.

Here is a picture (sorry for the quality but the white thing looks to be a mite).


Does this look like the same bug to you ?

.

This one is a bulb mite, Rhizoglyphus robini, see here.


New research finds ginger counters certain autoimmune diseases in mice

Naturopathic medicine, or herbal medicine, is all the rage, especially among young people. But how much of this is supported by science?

Ginger is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, making it a popular herbal supplement to treat inflammatory diseases.

And according to a Michigan Medicine led study published in JCI Insight, the main bioactive compound of ginger root, 6-gingerol, is therapeutic in countering the mechanism that fuels certain autoimmune diseases in mice. Researchers specifically looked at lupus, a disease which attacks the body's own immune system, and its often associated condition antiphospholipid syndrome, which causes blood clots, since both cause widespread inflammation and damage organs overtime.

In mice with either antiphospholipid syndrome or lupus, 6-gingerol prevented neutrophil extracellular trap release, which is triggered by the autoantibodies that these diseases produce.

"Neutrophil extracellular traps, or NETs, come from white blood cells called neutrophils," says lead author Ramadan Ali, Ph.D. "These sticky spider-web like structures are formed when autoantibodies interact with receptors on the neutrophil's surface."

According to Ali, these webs play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus and antiphospholipid syndrome where they trigger autoantibody formation and contribute to blood vessel clotting and damage.

The study question was, "will the anti-inflammatory properties of ginger extend to neutrophils, and specifically, can this natural medicine stop neutrophils from making NETs that contribute to disease progression?"

"This pre-clinical study in mice offers a surprising and exciting, 'yes'," Ali says.

Ali discovered that after giving 6-gingerol, the mice had lower levels of NETs. Their tendency to make clots was also drastically reduced and 6-gingerol appeared to inhibit neutrophil enzymes called phosphodiesterases, which in turn reduced neutrophil activation.

But the most surprising find of all was that the mice, regardless of whether they had antiphospholipid syndrome or lupus, had reduced autoantibodies suggesting the inflammatory cycle, autoantibodies stimulating NETs which stimulate more autoantibodies, was broken.

Next steps and potential implications

"Through my years of medical training I wasn't taught much about supplements, but it's something that so many patients ask me about," says study author and rheumatologist Jason Knight, M.D. "When Ramadan brought the concept to me, I was enthusiastic to pursue it in my lab, as I knew it would matter to them. Sometimes our patients give us really good ideas!"

Although the study was done in mouse models, Ali and Knight think the preclinical data, showing that 6-gingerol has anti-neutrophil properties that may protect against autoimmune disease progression, encourages clinical trial development.

"As for basically all treatments in our field, one size does not fit all. But, I wonder if there is a subgroup of autoimmune patients with hyperactive neutrophils who might benefit from increased intake of 6-gingerol," Knight says. "It will be important to study neutrophils before and after treatment so we can determine the subgroup most likely to see benefit."

The bioactive compound can't be the primary therapy for someone with active antiphospholipid syndrome or lupus, but the team is interested to see if the natural supplement may help those at high risk for disease development.

"Those that have autoantibodies, but don't have activated disease, may benefit from this treatment if 6-gingerol proves to be a protective agent in humans as it does in mice," Ali says, who's passionate about natural medicine research for rheumatic diseases.

"Patients with active disease take blood thinners, but what if there was also a natural supplement that helped reduce the amount of clots they produce? And what if we could decrease their autoantibodies?"


Ginger promotes your respiratory health by eliminating air pollutants, tobacco smoke and perfumes out of the air passages before they have time to irritate the lungs. It also relieves congestion, as well as improves circulation to the lungs, thus reducing the severity of many chronic lung-diseases such as bronchitis.

Ginger for Chest Congestion

Ginger is often recommended for asthma patients. Asthma is a long-term disease that is characterized by the inflammation of the air passages of your lungs. Ginger helps control this inflammation so you feel and breathe better.


SANITATEMBIO’s remedy to unclog your tubes

The natural remedy proposed by the experts of Sanitatembio is a remedy based on plants and herbs that have the property of unclogging the tubes. These plants have powerful anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties that will help unclog the tubes. Some plants also have a vasodilator, depurative, and diuretic power, the herbal tea will unblock your tubes. The plants have been selected so that their properties complement each other and work together to unclog the tubes. In addition, these plants have no negative interaction between them and with the body.

What are the fallopian tubes?

To understand how obstruction of the fallopian tubes occurs, we will first explain what these channels or tubes are that connect the ovaries and the uterus. The fallopian tubes are two thin tubes or oviducts in the shape of a trumpet, about 10-12 cm long and 2-4 mm in diameter, located on either side of the uterus and which communicate the ovaries with the uterus. Inside, each of these channels is covered with folds of mucous membrane lined with eyelashes, hair-like cell structures that help mobilize the oocyte to meet the sperm or zygote for proper implantation in the endometrium.

During the menstrual cycle, the ovaries release an oocyte that has developed into an ovarian follicle. The oocyte passes through the fallopian tubes to the uterus for about 24 hours, waiting to be fertilized by sperm. If during this time it has not been fertilized, it is expelled with menstruation. If it is fertilized, the embryo ends up in the uterus and finally leads to embryo implantation and subsequent pregnancy.

What happens if the fallopian tubes are blocked?


In some cases, there may be a blockage in the fallopian tubes that prevent the egg from going down into the uterus. As a result, it will be impossible to find sperm, which is therefore a cause of female infertility. This blockage of the ducts can occur in one or both tubes, totally or partially.

This problem is responsible for 10% to 25% of cases of female infertility. Fallopian tube blockage is also known as a tubal factor.

Causes
Fallopian tube problems result from clinical conditions that block or damage the tubes, including the following:

Pelvic infections (such as pelvic inflammatory disease)
Use of an intrauterine device if it causes a pelvic infection (which is rare)
A ruptured appendix
Surgery of the pelvis or lower abdomen
Inflammation that damages the uterus and fallopian tubes (e.g., caused by tuberculosis).
An (ectopic) pregnancy poorly localized in the fallopian tubes

THE BENEFITS OF GINGER

What explains such a surge in popularity of ginger recipes? First of all, the unique composition of this plant, thanks to which its use in food improves immunity and accelerates metabolism. The beneficial properties of ginger root are based on the content of valuable elements :

Vitamin C
Vitamin B12
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Pyridoxine
Nicotinic acid
Oleic acid
Linoleic acid
Magnesium
Selenium
Phosphorus
Molybdenum
Capsaicin alkaloid
Gingerol

Ginger: beneficial properties for the body and contraindications


The beneficial properties of ginger for the body cannot be overestimated. This product is a storehouse of essential trace elements, four hundred of them! See the effects on the use of ginger.

Stimulates the function of the immune system.
Accelerates blood circulation.
Prevents the formation of cholesterol plaques.
Cleanses the liver.
Improves metabolism.
Eliminates belching and heartburn.
It has an anthelmintic effect.
Improves the cognitive function of the brain.
Speeds up the treatment of colds
Improves fertility.


As you can see, ginger can definitely be called natural medicine. But, like any powerful remedy, it has contraindications. We understand, in some cases, can not eat ginger.

Gastritis and stomach ulcer.

Cirrhosis of the liver.
Hypertension and coronary heart disease.
Bleeding.
Allergy
Biliary disease.
Pregnancy
Preoperative period.

Ginger: beneficial properties for women
In fact, ginger is not only used as concomitant therapy for various diseases. So, This precious plant gives many more bonuses that are often used by women.

Useful properties of ginger for women:

Promotes weight loss, stimulates metabolism, cleanses the body.
Reduces menstrual cramps and cramps.
It is a natural antioxidant, which slows down the aging of the skin.
Helps insomnia, relieves nervous tension.
Increases body tone, gives energy.
Unblocks the fallopian tubes in case of infertility.

GINGEMBER: blocked fallopian tubes


Ginger root improves blood circulation, relieves inflammation, and blockages. Hawthorn and bearberry reduce congestion and remove excess fluid, eliminating blockages caused by fluid or blood build-up.

Ginger recipe for blocked fallopian tubes
Consuming ginger root regularly is also good for unlocking the fallopian tubes.

But, ginger root improves circulation throughout the body and helps reduce inflammation and blockages. It also reduces excess body fluids, opening blocked fallopian tubes by collecting fluid or blood. Then, boil 1 tablespoon of grated ginger root in 2 cups of water for 10 minutes. However, strain, add honey and drink 2 or 3 cups of this herbal tea daily.
In addition, you can chew slices of fresh ginger several times a day.

Additional tips


The practice of meditation aims to reduce stress and ensure overall physical health. Take all necessary steps to reduce stress to improve your chances of becoming pregnant.
Avoid packaged foods such as inorganic meat products containing synthetic hormones.
Eat foods rich in antioxidants to promote healing and good health.
Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight or underweight can lead to fertility problems.
Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as foods rich in iron, calcium, B vitamins, selenium and folic acid.
Drink plenty of water every day to help your body eliminate toxins.


Ginger inhibits Herpes viruses

Researchers from Germany’s University of Heidelberg studied essential oils from various herbs against herpes simplex virus type 2. Other than ginger, these included anise, hyssop, thyme, chamomile and sandalwood.

The researchers found that the ginger essential oil significantly inhibited the HSV-2 virus replication within RC-37 cells. The researchers found that plaque formation was halted by 90 percent by the ginger essential oils and the thyme oil.

The researchers tested this inhibitory effect at different stages of infection, and concluded that the ginger essential oil somehow interacted with the viral envelope.

Another study from the University of Heidelberg studied herpes simplex-1 against oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood. The research found that all of these oils inhibited HSV-1 growth. Furthermore, they inhibited the growth of acyclovir-resistant strains of HSV-1. That means ginger can inhibit antiviral-resistant strains of herpes.

In a 2019 study from Italy’s University of Aldo Moro of Bari, researchers tested ginger against the animal version of herpes virus 1, also called Caprine alphaherpesvirus 1.

Alphaherpesvirus 1 is a common herpes virus that now infects some 60 percent of the adult population, causing canker sores on the lips and genital regions.

The researchers found that a ginger extract inhibited the infection of infection-free cells when coming into contact with the virus. They concluded that the ginger likely collapsed the viral envelope.

They did not find that the ginger would stop the infection after the cell was infected. But it protected healthy cells from infection. They also found the skin readily absorbed the antiviral ginger extract. They stated:

“These findings open several perspectives in terms of therapeutic possibilities for a number of human and animal alphaherpesviruses. “


Where does the "ginger" belong?

This aromatic herb goes by many names but first and foremost it goes by its scientific species name Zingiber officinale. Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, manufactured the name Zingiber officinale . This scientific name can be used to define a tropic Asiatic and Polynesian perennial plants: ginger. It also goes by the following alias': cooking ginger, garden ginger, ginger root. The complete profile of this ginger is also available at United States Department of Agriculture.

Has eukaryotic cells, cells move, they make their own food

Consists of multicellular organisms that are formed from eukaryotic cells. Organisms in the Plantae kingdom receive their nutrients through photosynthesis. The eukaryotic cells form tissues and have cell walls made of cellulose.

This phylum is considered to be an Angiosperm or "flowering plant". An angiosperm is a plant that bears fruit, has seeds, and is vascular.

The Liliopsida class is a monocot or monocotyledon. Monocots have a single cotyledon, floral parts in multiples of threes, and is herbaceous.

Has flowers composed of colorful specialized leaves, has large leaves with parallel veins, and a long stalk.

This cladisitic phylogeny tree represents the order of Zingiberales. This order includes the families: Cannaceae, Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Lowiaceae, Marantaceae, Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, and of course Zingiberaceae. Costaceae and Zingiberaceae are most closely related of their similarities of inflorescence and floral characters, specifically they both have 1 fertile stamen and 2 anther sacs.

This phylogeny tree represents the genetic molecular similarities between these different species of Zingibers. The result of this tree is that Zingiber officinale is most closely related to the species Zingiber zerumbet.


Ginger Counters Certain Autoimmune Diseases in Mice

Ginger is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, making it a popular herbal supplement to treat inflammatory diseases.

And according to a Michigan Medicine led study published in JCI Insight, the main bioactive compound of ginger root, 6-gingerol, is therapeutic in countering the mechanism that fuels certain autoimmune diseases in mice. Researchers specifically looked at lupus, a disease which attacks the body’s own immune system, and its often associated condition antiphospholipid syndrome, which causes blood clots, since both cause widespread inflammation and damage organs overtime.

In mice with either antiphospholipid syndrome or lupus, 6-gingerol prevented neutrophil extracellular trap release, which is triggered by the autoantibodies that these diseases produce.

“Neutrophil extracellular traps, or NETs, come from white blood cells called neutrophils,” says lead author Ramadan Ali, Ph.D. “These sticky spider-web like structures are formed when autoantibodies interact with receptors on the neutrophil’s surface.”

According to Ali, these webs play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus and antiphospholipid syndrome where they trigger autoantibody formation and contribute to blood vessel clotting and damage.

The study question was, “will the anti-inflammatory properties of ginger extend to neutrophils, and specifically, can this natural medicine stop neutrophils from making NETs that contribute to disease progression?”

“This pre-clinical study in mice offers a surprising and exciting, ‘yes’,” Ali says.

Ali discovered that after giving 6-gingerol, the mice had lower levels of NETs. Their tendency to make clots was also drastically reduced and 6-gingerol appeared to inhibit neutrophil enzymes called phosphodiesterases, which in turn reduced neutrophil activation.

But the most surprising find of all was that the mice, regardless of whether they had antiphospholipid syndrome or lupus, had reduced autoantibodies suggesting the inflammatory cycle, autoantibodies stimulating NETs which stimulate more autoantibodies, was broken.

Next steps and potential implications

“Through my years of medical training I wasn’t taught much about supplements, but it’s something that so many patients ask me about,” says study author and rheumatologist Jason Knight, M.D. “When Ramadan brought the concept to me, I was enthusiastic to pursue it in my lab, as I knew it would matter to them. Sometimes our patients give us really good ideas!”

Although the study was done in mouse models, Ali and Knight think the preclinical data, showing that 6-gingerol has anti-neutrophil properties that may protect against autoimmune disease progression, encourages clinical trial development.

Ginger is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, making it a popular herbal supplement to treat inflammatory diseases. Image is in the public domain

“As for basically all treatments in our field, one size does not fit all. But, I wonder if there is a subgroup of autoimmune patients with hyperactive neutrophils who might benefit from increased intake of 6-gingerol,” Knight says. “It will be important to study neutrophils before and after treatment so we can determine the subgroup most likely to see benefit.”

The bioactive compound can’t be the primary therapy for someone with active antiphospholipid syndrome or lupus, but the team is interested to see if the natural supplement may help those at high risk for disease development.

“Those that have autoantibodies, but don’t have activated disease, may benefit from this treatment if 6-gingerol proves to be a protective agent in humans as it does in mice,” Ali says, who’s passionate about natural medicine research for rheumatic diseases.


Pharmalogical activities of ginger and its constituents

Ginger showed its importance as a medicine in Asian countries since ancient times. Pharmalogical activities of ginger and its constituents in health managements through modulation of various biological activities described as following:

Antioxidant activity

Antioxidants are substances that play a role in the neutralization of free radicals and oxidative stress. The free radical production is balanced by the antioxidative defense system of our body [17]. Any alterations between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and its neutralization by antioxidant defense [18,19] cause oxidative stress. Several plants and their constituents are rich source of antioxidant and play a significant role in prevention of disease progression process. Ginger is a source of a large number of antioxidants and also plays an important role in the reduction of the lipid oxidation and inhibits the pathogenesis of diseases ( Figure 3 ). Previous study reported that ginger extract possesses antioxidative characteristics and shows a role in scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals [20,21] and gingerol, inhibited ascorbate/ferrous complex induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes [22].

Ginger and its constituents shows role in diseases prevention.

The essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale exhibited significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities [23]. 6 Dehydroshogaol, 6-shogaol and 1-dehydro-6-gingerdione has shown potent inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in activated macrophages [24]. Another report in the favor of ginger as antioxidant showed that 6-shogaol has potent antioxidant properties which can be attributed to the presence of unsaturated ketone moiety [25]. Another study has shown that phenolic substances possess strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties and considerable anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities [26] and showed role as in scavenging of H2O2, which donate electrons to H2O2, thus neutralizing it to water [27]. Earlier report showed that antioxidative activity of ginger extract in animal model [28].

Anti-inflammatory activity

Inflammation is a complex immune process and various mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and anti-inflammatory cytokines involve in this process. Currently non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used to treat the inflammation but this drug shows an adverse side effect and gastric ulcer. Various medicinal plants and their constituents have shown a vital effect in the prevention of inflammatory process. Earlier study has shown that ginger oil (33 mg/kg), administered orally to rats for 26 days, showed significant repression of paw and joint swelling associated with severe chronic adjuvant arthritis [29]. Ginger also shows a vital role in the suppression/inhibition in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-α, and IL-8 [13,30,31]. Another finding revealed that, the elevated expression of TNF-α in liver cancer rats was blocked when treated with ginger extract (100 mg/kg body weight) [32]. In addition to that, Ginger play a role in the inhibition of COX and 5-lipoxygenase, essential for arachidonate metabolism [33], and down-regulating the induction of inflammatory genes [34,35].

Earlier investigation has shown that, Ginger root and its constituents can inhibit NF-㮫 activation induced by a variety of agents [36-38] and downregulation of NF-㮫 gene products involved in cellular proliferation and angiogenesis [39]. DZO also shows a role in suppressing the expression of LPS-induced IFN-γ and IL-6, which are elevated in LPS-induced inflammation [40].

Anti-tumour activity

Tumour development and progressions are multi step process including genetic and metabolic changes [41,42]. Earlier study summarized the role of medicinal plant in the diseases management via modulation of various biological activities including cancer [43,44]. Ginger and its constituents show a vital effect in the control of tumour development through up regulation of tumour suppressor gene, induction of apoptosis and inactivation of VEGF pathways ( Figure 4 ). Angiogenic factor such as VEGF play a significant role in the development and progression of tumour. Therefore, Inhibition of VEGF is an important step in the prevention of tumour development/management. Earlier investigation has shown that, 6-gingerol has role in the suppression of the transformation, hyperproliferation, and inflammatory processes that involve in various steps of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis [45-48]. Another numerous studies showed that 6-gingerol, constituents of ginger play a role in the induction of apoptosis in the prostate cancer cell line LnCaP by increasing the expression of p53 and Bax and also decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 [49-51]. Another important study has shown that 6-shogaol show anticancer activities against breast cancer via inhibition of cell invasion reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression [52]. Another important finding suggest that 6-gingerol stimulates apoptosis through upregulation of NAG-1 and G1 cell cycle arrest through downregulation of cyclin D1 [53].

Ginger and its constituent play pharmacological effect in cancer management via modulation of molecular mechanism.

An important study reported that ginger root extracts and gingerol play a significant role in inhibition of the growth of Helicobacter pylori CagA+ strains, which has a specific gene linked to the development of gastric premalignant and malignant lesions [54] Moreover, 6-shogaol has shown to induce apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cells via the production of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspase [31] and [6]-gingerol inhibited pulmonary metastasis in mice bearing B16F10 melanoma cells through the activation of CD8+ T cells [55]. Earlier finding has reported that 6-gingerol showed its anti-tumoral activity through induction of ROS which is also known to trigger activation of p53 and the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis [56]. Another important and first finding showed that in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of whole GE for the management of prostate cancer [57].

Anti-microbial activity

Drug resistance is increasing worldwide and it is consider as a main culprit in the failure of treatment. The use of antibiotics against bacteria/microorganism is effective mode of treatment but also causes adverse complications. Earlier investigators have shown that, ginger and its constituents play a vital role in the prevention of microbial growth or acts as anti-microbial agents. An important study in the favors of ginger as anti-microbial activity showed that ginger has antimicrobial activity against E coli, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis and ethanolic extract of ginger showed widest zone of inhibition against Salmonella typhi [58]. Ginger rhizome contains several constituents which have antibacterial and anti fungal effects. The gingerol and shagelol are identified as more active agents [59]. Earlier studies have shown that, ginger has broad antibacterial activity and the ethanolic extract of ginger powder has pronounced inhibitory activities against Candida albicans [60-62] and other report also showed that antifungal properties of ginger extract, Gingerol [63]. Chief constituents such as [6]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol, isolated from ginger rhizome, showed antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria [64] and [10]-gingerol has been reported as active inhibitor of M. avium and M. tuberculosis in vitro [65].

Anti-diabetic activity

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and major global health problem worldwide. It is caused by abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism which is related to low blood insulin level or insensitivity of target organs to insulin [66]. As per estimation, one person is detected with diabetes every five second in the world whereas someone dies of it every 10 second [67]. Ginger and their constituents showed pivotal role in the control of diabetes and its complications via anti hyperglycemic effect. The exact mechanism of action of ginger in diabetes control is not fully understood but it might be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory process.

An important finding based on in STZ treated-type 1 diabetic rat model reported that, oral administration of ethanolic extract of ginger significantly decrease fasting blood glucose level [68]. Earlier study reported that significant blood glucose lowering effect of ginger juice in diabetic and non-diabetic animals [69]. Another study has shown that a significant hypoglycemic activity in rats after administration of ginger extract [70].

Neuroprotective effect

Ginger and their constituents play a vital role as neuroprotector. The exact mechanism of action of ginger in this vista is not known fully. But it is thought ginger shows neuroprotector effect due to the phenolic and flavonoids compounds. An important study has shown that, 6-shogaol has neuroprotective effects in transient global ischemia via the inhibition of microglia [71]. Another finding in the support of ginger as neuroprotector suggests that, it exhibit neuroprotective effect by accelerating brain anti-oxidant defence mechanisms and down regulating the MDA levels to the normal levels in the diabetic rats [72]. A recent report on ginger juice showed that, ginger has protective effect by decreasing the LPO and increasing GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR and QR and protein level in treated rats [73].

Effect on osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of musculoskeletal pain and disability worldwide. Treatment of osteoarthritis based on anti-inflammatory drugs gives relief but also shows side effect and may cause gastric ulcer. Ginger shows a significant role in the treatment of osteoarthritis and also has important therapeutic importance in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine since ancient time. An important study on osteoarthritis (OA) patients of knee has revealed that, highly purified and standardized ginger extract had significant effect on reducing symptoms of OA of the knee [74]. Another report in the support of ginger showed that, ginger is effective as indomethacin in relieving symptoms of osteoarthritis with negligible side effects [75].

Gastroprotective effect

Peptic ulcer is a major problem worldwide in both sexes. Various factors including food ingredients, stress, Helicobacter pylori and drugs are responsible of gastric ulcer. Several medicinal plants and its constituents show anti-ulcer effect in various ways but the exact mechanism is not understood fully. Ginger and its constituents show a vital role in ulcer prevention via increasing mucin secretion. Earlier findings have shown anti-ulcerative effects of ginger in experimental gastric ulcer models [76,77]. Chief constituents of ginger such as [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol suppressed gastric contraction in situ and suppression by the [6]-shogaol was more intensive [78].

Anti-emetic effect

Ginger and its constituents show a significant effect on nausea and vomiting. Exact mechanism of action of ginger in nausea and vomiting is not clear but it is thought that such type of effect due to constituents present in ginger including gingerols, shogaols, and galanolactone and diterpenoid of ginger [79,80]. Studies based on animal model revealed that, ginger extract possesses antiserotoninergic and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism effects which play an important role in the etiology of postoperative nausea and vomiting [79-81]. A study in the favors of ginger role in nausea and vomiting indicating its effect and provide relief in severity in nausea and vomiting [82].

Hepato-protective effect

Earlier investigators based on experimental findings have shown that, ginger and its constituents play a significant role in hepato-protection. An important study on ginger showed its protective effect against the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity [83]. Another report has shown that, administration of single dose of aqueous extract of ginger (200, 400 mg/kg prior to acetaminophen) was effective in preventing the acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and also decreased ALT, AST and ALP levels and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes levels in the liver [84]. Ginger is also useful in preventing the mancozeb-induced hepatotoxicity [85]. A recent report showed that, ginger is effective in reversing lead induced reduction in the liver weight, to increase plasma SOD and CAT activity, decrease LPx [86]. A recent report summarized the role of ginger in various types of diseases including diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications [87].

Effect on migraine

An important study showed that administration of ginger powder at dose of 500-600 mg for 3-4 days with gap of 4 hours, showed relief from migraine attack [88].

Effect of ginger on eye

Ginger and its constituents show an important role in the management of diabetes and its related symptoms including retinopathy. Earlier report has shown that an extract of ginger with dose 0.1 and 1.0 mg/mL reduced CML-KLH and MGO-derived advanced glycation end products (AGE) products by 60%-80% and glucose-derived AGE products by 50%-60% [89].

Safety, efficacy and toxicity of ginger

Numerous plants and its constituents show an important therapeutic effect in the health management. Measurement of toxicity and lethal dose level is important before using in health management. Several studies were performed to check the safe dose in animal model study.The dose and toxicity of ginger has been checked and recommended by various earlier investigators. A study in this vista, showed that dose of 0.5-1.0 g of ginger powder ingested 2-3 times for periods of 3 months to 2.5 years did not cause any adverse effects [114]. Another study on animals showed that the doses of 2.5 gram/kg body weight were tolerated without any mortality. But, when the dose was increased to 3-3.5 gram/kg body weight then there was 10-30% mortality [115]. An important study showed that ginger extract with different dosages such as 100, 333 and 1000 mg/kg administered to pregnant rats for 10 days during the period of organogenesis caused neither maternal nor developmental toxicity [116]. Other study conducted in both male and female rats at the dosages of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight for 35 days and results proved that chronic administration of ginger was not associated with any mortalities and abnormalities in general conditions, behavior, growth, and food and water consumption [117].


Bioactive Compounds and Bioactivities of Ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common and widely used spice. It is rich in various chemical constituents, including phenolic compounds, terpenes, polysaccharides, lipids, organic acids, and raw fibers. The health benefits of ginger are mainly attributed to its phenolic compounds, such as gingerols and shogaols. Accumulated investigations have demonstrated that ginger possesses multiple biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, neuroprotective, cardiovascular protective, respiratory protective, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antinausea, and antiemetic activities. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger, and the mechanisms of action are also discussed. We hope that this updated review paper will attract more attention to ginger and its further applications, including its potential to be developed into functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and management of chronic diseases.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory anticancer antinausea antiobesity antioxidant phytochemicals.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Figures

The potential mechanism for the…

The potential mechanism for the antioxidant action of 6-shogoal: 6-shogoal leads to the…

Several signaling pathways are involved…

Several signaling pathways are involved in the anticancer mechanisms of 6-gingerol. CDK: Cyclin-dependent…


Common Bugs That Eat Ginger

Insects can be beneficial in the garden, but those that we call pests are the bane of the gardener’s existence. These are the bugs that target certain plants and aim to conquer and destroy. Ginger, both edible and ornamental types, are no exception and there are plenty of pests of ginger that will take every opportunity to eat your plants.

Some of the many pests that like to go after ginger are:

Although they are not insects, slugs and snails will also be interested in eating your ginger plants.


Ginger plants have a distinctive, spicy odor, though you may have to get at the roots to smell it. The roots, a rhizome structure, are shaped like thick, gnarled, fat fingers. The root structure is close to the surface of the plant, less than 4 inches below the ginger blossoms and approximately 1 inch below the soil surface. Scratch gently at the root to see if you can smell the distinctive ginger odor. If the odor is not present when sniffing the root, the plant in question is probably not ginger.

Elizabeth Tumbarello has been writing since 2006, with her work appearing on various websites. She is an animal lover who volunteers with her local Humane Society. Tumbarello attended Hocking College and is pursuing her Associate of Applied Science in veterinary technology from San Juan College.


Watch the video: Νερό με τζίντζερ: Ποια τα οφέλη του για την υγεία (August 2022).