What are the exact differences between stereocilia and microvilli?

What are the exact differences between stereocilia and microvilli?

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This is a question in an old exam of Histology. I tried to answer the question, and I've made many searching attempts, but without resulting in any fixed/exact information. In some articles on the web, I've read the stereocilia and microvilli have both actin core, and this website states that stereocilia doesn't have actin filaments! I'm just feeling lost at this point. And now, I'm just searching for an exact answer for that question.

Note : It may be a super easy question for you. So please note that I'm a novice self-learner at Histology.

Stereocilia are basically modified microvilli. They are much longer than microvilli, and lack the villin protein.

According to Ross histology textbook, they both contain actin filaments.


Stereocilia of IHCs are in functional contact with an overlying auxiliary structure called the tectorial membrane. The base of the hair cell is in synaptic contact with the distal ends of auditory nerve axons. Sound waves that reach the inner ear set the basilar membrane, and hence the organ of Corti, into motion. This causes a shearing motion between the tectorial membrane and the tops of the hair cells that, in turn, displaces the stereocilia and triggers the flow of transducer currents. These changes in the receptor potential are mediated by the opening and closing of mechanically gated ion channels (transduction channels) at the tips of the stereocilia. This action leads to opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels distributed over the basolateral surface of the cell body and then to the release of neurotransmitter at the afferent synapses at the base of the hair cell. The hair bundle is “polarized,” which means that displacement of the stereocilia in the direction of the kinocilium (or basal body) results in hair cell depolarization and an increase in firing of auditory nerve fibers, whereas displacement in the opposite direction leads to hyperpolarization and a decrease in firing ( Fig. 3 ). Thus, the modulation of neurotransmitter release, and, as a consequence the pattern of action potentials in the auditory nerve, is linked tightly to the intensity, frequency, and temporal structure of sound waves entering the ear.

Inner ear structures are easily damaged by intense sound, drugs, viruses, and bacteria, and there are genetic causes of inner ear malformation. The resulting hearing loss is called sensorineural, and in such cases no treatment has been found to fully restore normal inner ear function. Some functional hearing may be restored, however, by electrically stimulating surviving spiral ganglion neurons through a cochlear prosthesis.

Types of Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia

These tissues can be classified as ciliated or non-ciliated based on a cellular organelle involved with motility and sensory activity.

Nearly every eukaryotic cell has a single, primary cilium that plays a crucial role in developmental signaling pathways, and is involved in maintaining tissue homeostasis. In spite of the presence of a primary cilium, however, most cells are often called ‘non-ciliated’ to distinguish them from cells containing numerous motile cilia. These specialized structures are made of microtubules and can beat in a coordinated manner to move particles in a particular direction. These particles could be dust and pathogens in the respiratory tract, or could be an ovum that is propelled along the fallopian tube towards the uterus.

The top part of this image shows human pseudostratified columnar epithelium containing motile cilia.

Even non-ciliated tissues of these epithelia contain tuft-like cytoplasmic projections called stereocilia. These structures, unlike motile cilia, are stiffer and made from actin microfilaments. They usually have an absorptive or mechanosensory function and are found in the male reproductive tract.

Difference Between Cilia and Microvillus

Cilia are tail-like projections found only in eukaryotic cells (that is, the cells of animals). There are two types: motile (that is, mobile) and non-motile. The two functions of these types of projections are to either move through the cell or to act as sensory organisms. Along with flagella, these projections are part of a group of organelles (that is, cell parts) known as undulipodia.

Microvilli are cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of eukaryotic cells. The main functions of these organelles are absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction (that is, when cells convert mechanical stimulus to chemical activity).

Motile cilia are used to move cells throughout certain parts of the organism –mostly animals and a few plants. The cilia act as sweepers, moving objects throughout the body. In mammals, for example, cilia are found along the lining of the trachea and are used to sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs. Non-motile cilia are usually found in the eyes and the nose (to trap dirt and other objects. In the nose, the non-motile cilia act as olfactory sensors).

Microvilli, on the other hand, are only non-motile, acting in conjunction with the sensory organs of the body –the nose, mouth, and ear in particular. They also act as anchors for sperm cells that have penetrated the extracellular coat of the egg cells.

The structures of both cilia and microvilli differ a great deal, mostly in how they are anchored on certain parts of the cell. Non-motile cilia contain a basal body (a microtubule) that attaches the cilia to the cell body. Microvilli are constructed of a densely packed bundle of cross-linked actin filaments to provide the structural core. A myosin 1a protein and calmodulin attaches the microvillus to the plasma membrane.

The main difference is in the function and movement of the organelles. Cilia, though there are those that do not move throughout the cell body, do ‘wave’, essentially, to move the cell or to move material over the surface of the cell. Microvilli never move. The sole purposes of this organelle are to enhance the surface area of the cell and to increase the rate of diffusion of materials into the cell.

1. Cilia come as either motile or non-motile organelles microvilli never move.
2. Cilia are used to move the cell or to move objects over the surface of the cell microvilli enhance the surface are of the cell and increase the rate of diffusion of materials into the cell.

Kinocilia are found on the apical surface of hair cells and are involved in both the morphogenesis of the hair bundle and mechanotransduction. Vibrations (either by movement or sound waves) cause displacement of the hair bundle, resulting in depolarization or hyperpolarization of the hair cell. The depolarization of the hair cells in both instances causes signal transduction via neurotransmitter release.

Role in hair bundle morphogenesis Edit

Each hair cell has a single, microtubular kinocilium. Before morphogenesis of the hair bundle, the kinocilium is found in the center of the apical surface of the hair cell surrounded by 20-300 microvilli. During hair bundle morphogenesis, the kinocilium moves to the cell periphery dictating hair bundle orientation. As the kinocilium does not move, microvilli surrounding it begin to elongate and form actin stereocilia. In many mammals the kinocilium will regress once the hair bundle has matured. [1]

Auditory system Edit

The movement of the hair bundle, as a result of endolymph [2] flow, will cause potassium channels on the stereocilia to open. This is mostly due to the pulling force stereocilia exerts on its neighboring stereocilia via interconnecting links that hold stereocilia together (usually from tallest to shortest) and this leads to the depolarization of the hair cell. This pattern of depolarization should not be confused with the more common depolarization which involves the influx of Na+ into the cell while K+ channels stay closed. Endolymph composition resembles that of the intracellular fluid (more K+ and less Na+) more closely compared to its counterpart, perilymph which resembles the extracellular fluid (more Na+ and less K+ compared to intracellular matrix). This depolarization will open voltage gated calcium channels. The influx of calcium then triggers the cell to release vesicles containing excitatory neurotransmitters into a synapse. The post-synaptic neurite then sends an action potential to the Spiral Ganglia of Gard. Unlike the hair cells of the crista ampullaris or the maculae of the saccule and utricle, hair cells of the cochlear duct do not possess kinocilia.

Vestibular apparatus Edit

Kinocilia are present in the crista ampullaris of the semicircular ducts and the sensory maculae of the utricle and saccule. One kinocilium is the longest cilium located on the hair cell next to 40-70 stereocilia. During movement of the body, the hair cell is depolarized when the sterocilia move toward the kinocilium. The depolarization of the hair cell causes neurotransmitter to be released and an increase in firing frequency of cranial nerve VIII. When the sterocilia tilt away from the kinocilium, the hair cell is hyperpolarized, decreasing the amount of neurotransmitter released, which decreases the firing frequency of cranial nerve VIII. [3]

The apical surface of a sensory fish hair cell usually has numerous stereocilia and a single, much longer kinocilium. Unlike mammals, the kinocilium does not regress and remains as part of the hair bundle after maturation of hair cells. Deflection of the stereocilia toward or away from the kinocilium causes an increase or decrease in the firing rate of the sensory neuron innervating the hair cell at its basal surface.

Hair cells in fish and some frogs are used to detect water movements around their bodies. These hair cells are embedded in a jelly-like protrusion called cupula. The hair cells therefore can not be seen and do not appear on the surface of skin of fish and frogs.

Difference Between Cilia and Microvilli

Cilia are tail like outgrowths of cytoplasm found only in eukaryotic cells which help in locomotion while microvilli are cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of eukaryotic cells for absorption.

Comparison Chart

DefinitionLong hair like projections of the plasma membrane with cores made up of microtubules are known as ciliaFinger-like elongated projections of the plasma membrane which represents a core of thin microfilament.
LengthCilli length ranges from 5 to 10 μm.Microvilli length ranges from 0.5 to 1 μm.
DiameterIts diameter is 0.5 μm.Its diameter is 0.1 μm.
LocationFound in respiratory and reproductive tracts.Occur in the intestine where absorption and secretions are the major activities.
Emerging siteArise from basal granulesBasal granules are absent
Cell TypeEukaryotic cellEukaryotic and prokaryotic cell
CharacteristicsMotile and nonmotileNonmotile
EtymologyComes from Latin word which means eyelashesComes from Greek word “mikros” meaning small and Latin word villus meaning hair
FunctionsHelps in rhythmic movements and helps as sensory organsAbsorption, secretions, cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction

What are Cilia?

The surface of mostly cells have extensions which are used in movement, absorption, phagocytosis, etc. Cilia and microvilli are two protoplasmic extensions of cells. Cilia is the plural of the cilium. These structures are either motile or nonmotile. Motile cilia can beat towards one direction so that organism can move the entangle particles from the surface. Celia is also present in some other specialized cells which are called sensory cells of a vertebrate ear. For example, normal cilia are surrounded by actin based stereocilia which are responsible for providing initial sensory input for hearing. These projections are also part of other organelles along with flagella, which is called undulipodia. The core of this structure is made up of microtubules that are arranged uniformly in a longitudinal orientation which is known as (9+2) orientation. 9+2 means that the core of each cilium contains nine microtubules doubly present in the periphery and two single microtubules in the center. Each cilium originates from a unique structure which is called a basal body. Basal body has different arrangements of microtubules. Basal body has nine microtubules which are present in triplets with no central tubules instead of the peripheral arrangement of nine tubules in a cilium core.

What are Microvilli?

Microvilli are the plural of microvillus. Microvilli are present on three types of cells which are specialized in absorption. The first site is the striated border of the intestinal epithelium the second site is brushed border of proximal tubule of the kidney while the third site is gall bladder epithelium. Microvilli possess tiny fibers which are called actin filaments that extend parallel to each other down the length of microvillus. The filaments are attached to each other and to the cell membrane by proteins. These proteins run perpendicular across the actin filaments. Microvilli are held together to form bundles by cross linking proteins which are known as villin and fimbrin. The chief function of the microvilli is the absorption of substances. Cells produce these microfilaments to enhance the surface area of absorption in the intestinal surface, to participate in carbohydrate digestion and to transport materials which are absorbed. Microvilli are packed in large numbers which make its appearance brush like. These brush boarders are present on the luminal surfaces of the epithelium of intestine, for absorption.

Key Differences

  1. Both cilia and microvilli contain protein fibers which extend outward to provide shape for the structure.
  2. Cilia are larger in length and diameter than microvilli.
  3. Cilia are made up of microtubules which contain (9+2) ultrastructure. Microvilli are made of microfilament which lacks (9+2) ultrastructure.
  4. Cilia are not surrounded by glycocalyx layer. Microvilli are surrounded by glycocalyx layer.
  5. Cilia are taper distally. Microvilli are extremely thin and short.
  6. Cilia are used in the movement of cell or objects over the surface of the cells microvilli enhance the surface area of the cell and increase the rate of diffusion of materials into the cell.
  7. Cilia are located on the surfaces of the columnar epithelia cells of the uterine tube or respiratory tract while microvilli are present on the surface of the columnar cells of the kidney tubules and small intestine.
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Materials And Methods


Rabbit anti-ERM pAb, TK89, recognized COOH-terminal domains of all ERM proteins almost equally (Kondo et al., 1997 Doi et al., 1999). We previously raised and characterized rat anti-ezrin (M11), anti-radixin (R21), and anti-moesin mAb (M22) (Kondo et al., 1997 Doi et al., 1999). Goat anti-VE-cadherin (C-19) was obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.

Generation of Rdx −/− mice

Rdx −/− mice were generated as previously reported (Kikuchi et al., 2002). Two independent mouse J1 ES clones (129/Sv) in which the radixin gene was correctly disrupted were injected into C57BL/6 blastocysts, and the resulting chimeras were mated with C57BL/6 mice (Doi et al., 1999).

ABR measurements

ABR measurements were performed in a soundproof room (Zheng et al., 1999). In general, the ABR waveforms were recorded for 12.8 ms at a sampling rate of 40,000 Hz using 50–5,000-Hz filter settings waveforms recorded from 1,024 stimuli at a frequency of 9 Hz were averaged. ABR waveforms were recorded in decreasing 5-dB SPL intervals from a maximum amplitude until no waveforms could be visualized.

VOR measurements

VOR was measured as described by Iwashita et al. (2001). Head movements were transduced to DC signals using a small angular velocity sensor (Gyrostar Murata Corporation) that was fixed on the turntable. Eye movements were detected by LED and a CCD camera (C53500 Tokyo Electronic Industry), and eye velocities were calculated online by downloading them onto a computer through a video capture board. Both the head and eye velocity curves were fitted with sinusoidal curves using the least squares criterion, and the gain of eye velocity relative to the head velocity was obtained.

Immunofluorescence microscopy

Temporal bones were removed from 1-, 6-, 14-, or 40-d-old mice, and together with the small holes in the cochlear apical turn and superior semicircular canal, the round and oval windows were opened. The lymphatic space was gently perfused with 10% TCA through a round window (Hayashi et al., 1999 Kitajiri et al., 2004). Samples were then immersed in 10% TCA for 1 h at 4°C, washed three times with PBS, and decalcified with 5% EDTA in PBS for 3 d at 4°C. The cochlea and vestibule were then carefully microdissected, treated with 0.2% Triton X-100 in PBS for 15 min, and soaked in 1% BSA in PBS at RT. They were then incubated with rat anti-ezrin (M11), anti-radixin (R11), or anti-moesin (M22) mAb for 30 min at RT. Samples were washed three times with PBS, followed by a 30-min incubation with Cy3- (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, Inc.) or Alexa Fluor ® 488–conjugated secondary antibody (Molecular Probes, Inc.). After a wash with PBS, they were embedded in 95% glycerol-PBS containing 0.1% paraphenylendiamine and 1% n-propylgalate. Fluorescence images were obtained with a confocal microscope (model LSM 510 META Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Inc.) or with a DeltaVision optical sectioning microscope (version 2.10 Applied Precision, Inc.), equipped with an Axioplan2 (Plan Apochromat 63×/1.40 NA oil immersion objective Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Inc.) or IX70 (PlanApo 60×/1.40 NA oil immersion objective Olympus) microscope, respectively.


The membranous labyrinths of 5-wk-old mice were dissected under a microscope. Whole organ of Corti and vestibules isolated from each mouse were sonicated in 100 μl SDS sample buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 2% SDS, 20% glycerol, 2% 2-mercaptoethanol, and 0.01% bromophenol blue), applied to SDS-PAGE, and immunoblotted by a blotting detection kit with biotinylated Ig and streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase (Amersham Biosciences).

Scanning EM

Temporal bones obtained from 1-, 6-, 14-, or 40-d-old mice were fixed using perilymphatic perfusion as described above with 1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.2). They were then washed with phosphate buffer and post-fixed in 1% OsO4 for 2 h, after which they were once again treated with perilymphatic perfusion. The organ of Corti or crista ampullaris was microdissected, dehydrated, critical-point dried, sputter coated, and observed by scanning EM (model S-800 microscope Hitachi Co.).

Ultrathin-section EM

Samples were processed as previously described, using 2% formaldehyde, 2.5% glutaraldehyde, and 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) as a fixative (Yonemura et al., 2002).

What is microvilli in biology?

Cells may have slender extensions of the cell membrane to form cilia or the smaller extensions called microvilli. The microscopic microvilli effectively increase the surface area of the cell and are useful for absorption and secretion functions. A dramatic example is the human small intestine.

are microvilli found in plant or animal cells? Chloroplasts (left) are the site of photosynthesis in plant cells, storage granules (centre) provide a storage site for proteins in secreting cells, and microvilli (right) aid absorption of nutrients during digestion by increasing the surface area of cells in the intestinal wall.

Consequently, where are microvilli found and what is their function?

Microvilli are most often found in the small intestine, on the surface of egg cells, as well as on white blood cells. In the intestine, they work in conjunction with villi to absorb more nutrients and more material because they expand the surface area of the intestine.

What is difference between microvilli and cilia?

Microvilli are non-mortile whereas cilia are motile components. Cilia are used to move the cell bodies and other sweeping processes, whereas microvilli are used in the absorption process. Microvilli are located on the surfaces of the columnar epithelial cells of the small intestine and kidney tubule.

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Difference Between Cilia Stereocilia and Microvilli

The key difference between cilia stereocilia and microvilli is that cilia are tiny hair-like structures composed of microtubules while stereocilia are bundles of hair-like projections composed of actin filaments and microvilli are folds of cell membranes composed of actin filaments.

Difference between Flagella, Stereocilia, Microvilli vs Cilia

  • Similarly, unlike cilia, stereocilia and microvilli are immobile
  • Moreover, both Flagella and cilia present in the Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells unlike stereocilia and microvilli which are only the part of eukaryotic cells
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Difference among Cilia, Stereo Cilia and Microvilli

  • ADVERTISEMENTS: The upcoming discussion will update you about the differences among Cilia, Stereo Cilia and Microvilli
  • Cilia arise from the basal granules
  • They are not covered by glycocalyx
  • A cilium has 9+2 ultra-structure

Difference Between Cilia and Microvilli Compare the

  • Cilia are longer than microvilli.Cilia have a wider diameter than microvilli does
  • • The core of microvilli is made up of microfilaments while that of cilia is made up of microtubules, arranged in a (9+2) pattern
  • Microvilli are non-mortile whereas cilia are motile components.

Cilia vs stereocilia vs microvilli Flashcards Quizlet DA: 11 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 65

  • Cilia vs stereocilia vs microvilli
  • Have folds that retain mucous in surface of cells in places like the GI tract
  • Basically just skinny microvilli.

What are the exact differences between stereocilia and

  • This is a question in an old exam of Histology
  • I tried to answer the question, and I've made many searching attempts, but without resulting in any fixed/exact information
  • In some articles on the web, I've read the stereocilia and microvilli have both actin core, and this website states that stereocilia doesn't have actin filaments! I'm just

Difference Between Cilia and Microvilli Structure DA: 10 PA: 41 MOZ Rank: 57

  • Cilia are motile, but microvilli are non-motile
  • The main difference between cilia and microvilli is that cilia are involved in the rhythmic movement of the cell or movement of objects over the cell surface whereas microvilli enhance the absorption of nutrients by increasing the surface area of …

What is the difference between cilia and sterocilia DA: 13 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 70

  • Cilia can be motile or non-motile, whereas stereocilia are characterized by their lack of motility
  • 2. Stereocilia are actually more associated with microvilli, than cilia. 3.

12 Difference Between Cilia And Microvilli

Cilia and microvili are two types of projections in the plasma membrane.Microvilli are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for absorption.Cilia on the other hand, are narrow and long hair like protuberances from the apical surface of some epithelial cells.Both microvilli and cilia consist of protein fibers that extend outward from the cell and provide shape

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  • Terms in this set (17)-average 1-3 micrometers in length, bundle of actin filament anchored in the terminal web
  • microvilli-core of actin filaments cross-linked by …

Difference between Cilia and Microvilli Easy Biology Class

Difference between Cilia and Microvilli Cilia and microvilli are special types of protuberances from the surface some eukaryotic cells with specific functions such as movement, sensory functions or facilitating absorption. Cilia (singular – Cilium) are narrow and long hair like protuberances from the apical surface of some epithelial cells.

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Microvilli vs. Cilia: Structure & Size DA: 9 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 71

  • Unlike cilia, microvilli do not move. Cilia, plural for cilium, is the Latin word for ''eyelashes.'' They also resemble tiny hairs on the surface of certain cells

Describe the function of cilia, flagella, and microvilli DA: 14 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 77

  • Microvilli are also tube-like cellular extensions like cilia and flagella
  • Microvilli are different, however, in that they are shorter in length and more tightly packed on the surface of cells.

What is the difference between microvilli and cilia DA: 13 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 77

  • Microvilli increase the surface area of epithelia and are composed of actin filaments whereas cilia are composed of microtubules and are motile, sweeping debris and mucus, and sometimes having sensory functions
  • Histology Guide | Epithelia 1.6K views

Difference between Cilia and Stereocilia

  • Function: stereocilia in the epididymis are more like the long, absorptive microvilli
  • They increase the surface area of the cell, allowing for greater absorption and secretion.

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  • Cilia are larger in length and diameter than microvilli
  • Cilia are made up of microtubules which contain (9+2) ultrastructure. Microvilli are made of microfilament which lacks (9+2) ultrastructure. Cilia are not surrounded by glycocalyx layer.


  • Yhteenveto - Cilia Stereocilia vs Microvilli
  • Silmät, stereosilia ja mikrovillit ovat kolmen tyyppisiä hiusten kaltaisia mikroskooppisia rakenteita, joita esiintyy ihmiskehossa
  • Siliat ovat liikkuvia, kun taas stereosilia ja mikrovillit ovat liikkumattomia
  • Lisäksi stereosilia ja mikrovilli ovat absorboivia, kun taas siliat eivät.


  • Zusammenfassung - Cilia Stereocilia vs Microvilli
  • Zilien, Stereozilien und Mikrovilli sind drei Arten von haarartigen mikroskopischen Strukturen, die im menschlichen Körper vorkommen
  • Zilien sind beweglich, während Stereozilien und Mikrovilli nicht beweglich sind
  • Darüber hinaus absorbieren Stereozilien und Mikrovilli, Zilien jedoch nicht.

Difference Between Cilia and Stereocilia Difference Between

  • Cilia can be motile or non-motile, whereas stereocilia are characterized by their lack of motility
  • Stereocilia are actually more associated with microvilli, than cilia

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Difference between cilia, flagella and microvilli

  • cilia are found on ciliated epithelial cells, like in the lungs
  • They wave rhythmically to move dirt and mucus out
  • Flagella are found on some bacteria and allow them to swim
  • microvilli are found in the small intestine, and increase the surface area for nutrient absorption

Difference Between Cilia and Microvillus Difference Between

  • Difference Between Cilia and Microvillus Cilia vs
  • Microvillus Cilia are tail-like projections found only in eukaryotic cells (that is, the cells of animals)
  • There are two types: motile (that is, mobile) and non-motile
  • The two functions of these types of projections are to either move through the cell or to act as sensory organisms
  • Along with flagella, these projections are […]


Összegzés - Cilia Stereocilia vs Microvilli A legfontosabb különbség cilia stereocilia és microvilli között az a csillók apró, szőrszerű szerkezetek, amelyek mikrotubulusokból állnak, míg a sztereocíliák az aktinszálakból álló hajszerű vetületek kötegei, a mikrovillusok pedig az …

Diferența dintre cilia și stereocilia Diferența dintre 2021

  • Cilia (ciliul în singular) sunt proiecții fine de păr din celulele eucariote
  • Tractul respirator are numeroase cilia care se mută în armonie pentru a îndepărta fluidele și alte particule străine
  • Organismele cu un singur celular au, de asemenea, aceste proiecții, care le ajută cu locomoție.


  • Shrnutí - Cilia Stereocilia vs Microvilli
  • Cilia, stereocilia a microvilli jsou tři typy vlasových mikroskopických struktur nalezených v lidském těle
  • Cilia jsou pohyblivé, zatímco stereocilia a mikroklky jsou nepohyblivé
  • Kromě toho jsou stereocilie a mikroklky absorpční, zatímco řasy …


Povzetek - Cilia Stereocilia vs Microvilli The ključna razlika med cilia stereocilia in microvilli je to cilije so drobne lase podobne strukture, sestavljene iz mikrotubulov, medtem ko so stereocilije snopi las podobnih štrlin, sestavljeni iz aktinskih filamentov, mikrovili pa so gube celičnih membran, sestavljene iz aktinskih filamentov.

Watch the video: DITW - Microvilli versus Cilia (June 2022).